GGRB28H3 Final: GGRB28 Winter 2016 - Lecture and Reading Notes from Paul Farmer combined - Final Prep

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GGRB28 MT Notes
Lecture #2: Globalization and Health: Are we entering a New Era of Disease?
In an era of globalization, are more intensified connections between people & new
ways of interaction with environment leading to “newly emerging diseases”?
Globalization
Greater connections between people and places
Turn towards the market (goods/service distribution are more integrated)
Rising inequalities
Globalization as significant break from decades of progress
1940s: antibiotics begin to be widely used, 1950’s, polio vaccine manufactured and
1977, massive WHO campaign leads to small pox eradication
Additionally, in the West specifically, better nutrition and housing, safer
food/water and improved hygiene
Infectious diseases vs. lifestyle diseases
Sense of optimism, Cohen’s article:
Newly Emerging Diseases
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West Nile (transmission through mosquitoes, resurfaced in N. America, Ebola
(internal, external bleeding), Lyme disease (spread by ticks, suburbanization), HIV,
drug resistant bacteria
***3 sides to hypothesis that globalization leads to new forms of disease
Greater connections between people & new interactions with the environment lead
to more diseases (more mobility and migration)
Greater global inequalities lead to more diseases and ill-health
The weakening of global health institutions increases disease (WHO is losing
legitimacy)
New connections b/t ppl and enviro
McMichael demonstrates that the domestication of animals 10,000 yrs ago
concentrated diseases like flu and cholera
3000 yrs ago, continental interaction resulted in greater societal contact (ex.
various plagues like the Black Death)
500 yrs ago, expansion of European colonization killed local populations (ex. Spanish
smallpox)
Present: global dynamics promoting diseases like AIDS, West Nile, TB & drug
resistant bacteria
New Inequalities
Life expectancies at birth where lower ones are concentrated in Africa
Weakening Institutions, Coming Plague
Health coordination as weakened recently which explains the emergence of
infectious diseases
Massive concentrations of wealth, **government interference often neglected in
favour of market forces which are more efficient/legitimate
Private beneficiaries have more control over public health
Additional factors affecting disease
***Societal changes in terms of sexual activity and modern institutions that allow
more women to enter the workforce, increasing daycares, immigration, internal
migration, greater daycare use and food-borne illnesses
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Technology changes: intensive care units, advanced hospital facilities, appropriate
use of antibiotics
Reassessment of globalization causing newly emerging diseases
Paul Farmer, argues a critical epistemology (ways of understanding) of new
infectious diseases and states that globalization is a limited way of framing the
hypothesis
Why are certain infections and individuals used at the expense of concepts like
poverty, class and race?, some diseases may have never been eliminated in the
Global South, in fact, many diseases are prevalent in the global south
Geography should include the poor in the “First World”
**Packard argues that global health policies treated symptoms but not underlying
structures that cause disease
Additional notes:
Certain representations based on racialized stereotypes, ex. blacks as unclean and
sexually promiscuous suggests a different perspective on diseases and yield a
geographical sense of class polarization
Ecological factors that contribute to disease spread: Higher water temperatures
(outbreaks in shellfish/fish), biodiversity change, intensified farming/animal
husbandry
Farmer’s critique of ideas of health transitions in that it ignores the underlying
social and economic inequalities of the world
Tropical diseases: portioning 3rd world diseases (ex. malaria is not just the 3rd world
but also prevalent in global north)
Pathogenic: describes the viruses/germs that cause some type of disease
*Farmer’s main argument is that some diseases never disappeared and that social
conditions causes spaces that make diseases more apparent
Lecture #3: Geographies of Blame: Geographical Imaginations and Disease
Introducing geographical imaginations
Pictures of Africans asking for help illicit agency of responsibility as a Western
person reading; women depicted as powerless, vulnerable and passive
Devastation of Africa map shows the lack of recognition of differences between
countries and the high potential for failure in health policy
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Document Summary

Globalization: greater connections between people and places, turn towards the market (goods/service distribution are more integrated, rising inequalities. Globalization as significant break from decades of progress: 1940s: antibiotics begin to be widely used, 1950"s, polio vaccine manufactured and. 1977, massive who campaign leads to small pox eradication: additionally, in the west specifically, better nutrition and housing, safer food/water and improved hygiene, infectious diseases vs. lifestyle diseases, sense of optimism, cohen"s article: Newly emerging diseases: west nile (transmission through mosquitoes, resurfaced in n. america, ebola (internal, external bleeding), lyme disease (spread by ticks, suburbanization), hiv, drug resistant bacteria. Spanish smallpox: present: global dynamics promoting diseases like aids, west nile, tb & drug resistant bacteria. New inequalities: life expectancies at birth where lower ones are concentrated in africa. Lecture #3: geographies of blame: geographical imaginations and disease. Edward said on orientalism: binary where west (occident) is masculine, rational, democratic and progressive whereas east/orient is feminine, irrational, tyrannical and timeless.

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