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GGRB28H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Emerging Infectious Diseases, Global Health, 1918 Flu Pandemic

by

Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRB28H3
Professor
Mark Hunter
Study Guide
Final

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Exam Review – GGRB28
Chapter 2 Farmer – Rethinking Emerging Infectious Diseases
1. What is critical epistemology?
a. A critical approach asks how existing frameworks might limit our ability to
discern trends that are related to the emergence of disease
b. Argues that this narrative of emerging infectious diseases is quite partial – not
against it, problematize the way they have been portrayed
c. Who are they new to? These diseases have never really gone away, never
really got rid of these diseases, just closed our eyes – cured them in the west
and forgot about them elsewhere so they really aren’t new. Just because it’s
reemerging in the North, doesn’t mean it ever went away in the South. Matter
of perspective
2. What are the precise mechanisms by which infectious diseases come
to afflict some bodies but not others? What does he mean by this and
how is this related to TB?
Cohen, Changing Patterns of Infectious Diseases
3. How is the 1976 emergence of Ebola in Sudan (farmer) related to
Cohen’s six links between globalization and infectious diseases?
a. The distribution of Ebola outbreaks is tied to regional trade networks and other
evolving social systems. Ebola explosions afflict certain groups (people living in
poverty/healthcare workers who serve the poor) and spare others. Its a mistake to
conclude that poor nursing practices were central to Ebolas emergence – these
simplifications de-socialize out understanding by masking the contributions of
social inequalities to the shape of these epidemics
b. Changes in demographics and behaviour, changes in
technology and industry, environmental change and land-use,
international travel and commerce, breakdown of public health
measures, emerging infectious in the twenty-first century
4. Cohen states “The recurring theme throughout all of these factors
that influence the emergence of infectious diseases is change”. What
are the two types of change he is talking about and list an example
a. Societal and technological change – VRE in Europe because of
antibiotics used to promote animal growth and in US because
of inadequate infection control
McMichael, The Historical Pattern of Infectious Disease
5. McMichael gives a definition of an “emerging infectious”, what is an
emerging infectious?
a. Established infectious diseases undergoing increased
incidence

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b. Newly discovered infectious
c. Newly evolving (newly occurring) infections
6. What are the four-time periods listed by McMichael?
a. Early agrarian – animals
b. Early Eurasia – military and commercial contact
c. European expansionism – transoceanic spread of disease
d. Current – widespread impacts of demographic, environmental,
behavioral, technological and other rapid changes
7. McMichael states the widespread pandemic of certain diseases often
occur at times of poverty and social disruption? Name three of these
diseases
a. Bubonic plague in 14th century Europe = poverty, climate and
crop failure
b. TB, smallpox and cholera = crowded unsanitary conditions
c. Spanish influenza = followed chaos of WW1
Chapter 4 Farmer, HIV in the Caribbean
8. What is “Geography of Blame”?
a. Cultural construction of a disease – blaming it on a “dirty” or
“dark” society, illiterate and disease ridden
b. Systematic misreading of existing epidemiologic and
ethnographic data
9. Farmer states that diarrheal diseases were leading to the significant
morbidity in infants and young children before HIV infection was even
diagnosed. What does this tell us about the social spreading of HIV in
Haiti?
a. More prevalent in urban areas and lower socioeconomic groups
Treichler, AIDS, Africa, and Cultural Theory (W3)
10. According to Treichler, do we in the West tend to overestimate or
underestimate the AIDS epidemic in Africa?
a. Underestimate, we make outrageous generalizations
b. Obsessed with “little known” sexual practices
c. Embodies deeply entrenched cultural stereotypes about
gender, race and class
d. Complex issue confounded and exacerbate by incorrect
stereotypes and generalizations
11. Why does Treichler state that the research by ethnographers on “risk
groups” for HIV infection has not provided accurate data on the
spread of HIV in Africa?

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a. Have little to do with the lived realities of human experience
b. Not a “group” but collection of individuals who share a common
characteristic
c.
Chapter 1, Farmer, The Vitality of Practice: On Personal Trajectories
(W4)
12. Farmer calls for “appropriate technology” for the people of Haiti. Is he
requesting high-tech or low-tech solutions?
13. Farmers states we “impose standards of care”. By this he means that
when providing health care the West refuses to fund services seen as
“culturally inappropriate medical standards. Explain this.
Packard, Post-Colonial Medicine (W4)
14. What does Packard believe about global health policy?
15. What are Packard’s three periods of health care? How are they
similar?
Schoef, SAPs and the Political Ecology of AIDS in Africa (W4)
16. Explain what Schoef means when she states that the response to
AIDS is political? Explain how this links to the Packard article?
a. Contested meanings and unequal power, different forms of
knowledge struggling for control, underestimated magnitude
b. Constructed as an urban plight from which traditional areas
would be spread
c. Controlled AIDs by targeting core transmitters – sex workers
etc.
17. Name some of the social barriers Schoef highlights as obstacles to
receiving proper healthcare?
a. Proximity to healthcare facility, ability to pay for user fees,
language, class, gender
b. Funding was cut to groups with little political influence
Factsheet, The medicines control act (W5)
18. What is the medicines control act?
a. A legal framework for ensuring that medicine in South Africa is
affordable
b. Generic substitution of off-patent medicines imported, parallel
importation of patented medicines and transparent pricing
c. Governments must: enact the act immediately, begin the
implementation of a mother to child transmission program,
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