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University of Toronto Scarborough
Global Asia Studies
Liang Chen

Journal 9 Treaty Ports: was the name given to the port cities in China that were opened to foreign trade by the Unequal Treaties. The treaty port system in China lasted broadly speaking one hundred years. The treaties were signed by China after suffering military defeat in The Opium War with the British due to the threat of military action by this Western power. It began with the 1841 Opium War, and the major powers involved were initially the British, with the eventual involvement of the French and the Americans. Taiping Rebellion: The Taiping Rebellion was a widespread civil war in southern China from, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, against the ruling Qing Dynasty. About 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history. Hong established the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, with its capital at Nanjing. The Kingdoms Army controlled large parts of southern China, at its height containing about 30 million people. The rebels attempted social reforms and the r
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