East India companies:
x More important that the Spanish for spice trade were the Dutch and English
o They entered the Indian Ocean commerce in the 17th century
x Together they quickly overtook and displaced the Portuguese Æmostly by force
x They were militarily and economically stronger than the Portuguese
x Example: during the 16th century the Dutch had become a highly commercialized and
urbanized society, and their business skills and maritime shipping operations were the
envy of Europe
x They then established their own trading post empires Æ The Dutch focused on the
islands of Indonesia and the English on India
x The Dutch took control, not only the shipping but also the production of cloves,
cinnamon, nutmeg and mace.
x There was a lot of bloodshed and enslavement
x Used silver generated profits to defeat hundreds of rival feudal lords and unify the
x Unlike the Spanish, the shoguns aOOLHGZLWKWKHFRXQWU\¶VYLJRURXVPHUFKDQWFODVVWR
develop a market-based economy and to invest heavily in agricultural and industrial
x The Columbian Exchange was a dramatically widespread exchange of the animals,
plants, culture and human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and
ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres (Old World to New World).
x This exchange of plants and animals transformed European, American, African, and
Asian ways of life.
x New foods became staples of human diets, and new growing regions opened up for
x It was one of the most significant events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in
all of human history.
x Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas in 1492 launched the era of large-
scale contact between the Old and the New Worlds that resulted in this ecological
revolution, hence the name "Columbian" Exchange.