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University of Toronto Scarborough
Rowena Alfonso

Final Lecture Sectional Crisis American Revolution -> Now  civil war transformed America life  it was a new beginning of diversity, democracy  regional diversity 1861 - constitution 1787 failed  war create a broader democracy - war increased the power of the government  civil war was a turning point  what caused it: cultural social differences between the north/south into a division a fight for the west (sectional crisis): early 19th century - south north, west, - all different - socially, economically.  consisted of political conformation of the future of new western territory - whether slavery was going opt be used or not. for white southerners it was about extending slavery to perceive the south - plantations. northerners questioned slavery  Mexican war: brought new territory into the us. came the question whether slavery or not was going to be in it. Last week - david willmoe -offered an amendment to band slavery from land taken from Mexico - - discovery of gold (cali) and new territory 1849-50 Zackery Taylor - large slave owner and proposed to the extention of slavery - sharp reaction - warned that their s heated: question of political power - more ppl lived in the north. they could out vote the south. equally number of free state/slave state. south had a veto - to depend slavery - to keep cali and new Mexico coming in free states, if this happened they would lose their veno - for north this looked like the south wanted to keep power in the nation - created suspicion - S feared slave rebellions from the north - northerners wanted free labour economy - wanted to save land for whites and keep Africans out whether or not they were free or a slave - the comprise of 1850 - cali free state but Utah/Mexico under "popular sovereignty" whether or not slavery should be instituted - slave trade ended in d.c fugitive slave law - enable to S Slave owners force runaway slaves to return - issued warrants for fugitives - they had no right to testify on their behalf looked like it settled the issues - 4 yrs later - the issue started again Steven Douglas - political reasons: differences in their views looking at west issues had different meanings - its about political power -> 15/15 slave/free states = political power federally. david willmoe- opposed slavery - idea both north and south wanted western land for their own benefits Northerners/Southerners voted to elect a pro slavery / free state legistarte 1856- 2 competing governments (Pro slavery/free state) John Brown - 1856 Bleeding State - important Dred Scott v Sanford 1. The holding in Dred Scott was essentially comprised of two parts. The first said that Dred Scott was not a citizen and had no rights to use the courts as a citizen of the US. Chief Justice Taney's reasoning was that blacks/slaves were not considered citizens at the writing of the Constitution so they could never be citizens even if they were freed. This meant that throughout history any blacks would not be citizens of the US. After the Civil War Congress passed the 14th Amendment which said that anyone born or naturalized in the US was a citizen of the US. 2. The second part of the holding in Dred Scott was that the Missouri Compromise which made part of the Louisiana Territory a free state was null and void. Dred Scott had argued that he was made free when his master took him to a free state and that he was no longer a slave. Taney reasoned that Congress could not take away someone's property rights without due process of law. Since Dred Scott was a slave he was therefore property and Congress had not used due process in
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