American History Review.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Rowena Alfonso

Tenochtitlan  It was the economic, cultural and political center of the Aztec empire.  From 1325 to 1521  It fell before Hernan Cortes and his Spanish conquistadores.  They were the first ones to build a city and start a massive empire  Tenochtitlan was the largest city of their time and people worshipped them for it. Indentured Servitude  agreed to work for 7 years, got no wages, shipped to a plantation(slaves or convicts)  introduced in 1680  looked for good work force (labourers resulted to more tobacco being produced)  important because it formed a Plantation agriculture: Production of staple crops (e.g., tobacco, rice, cotton) for an export market, production carried out largely on scattered plantations worked by forced labor in return for having their passage to America paid, for bed and board, and for some modest freedom until their time was up.  --Got no wages.  --Under severe work discipline Powhatan  leader of the natives  held a confederation in the mid 1600d  took place in Virginia  They were the first group to have contact with settlers in Jamestown.  If it were not for the Powhatan tribe, the colonists never would have survived.  Pocahontas saved the life of John Smith and later married John Rolfe  Important because it created a stronger and more positive relationship between the tribe and the colonists  The peace lasted until Powhatan's death. Mercantilism • They focused on mercantilism – is a capitalist develop, a nation- state seeks to direct the economy, to strengthen itself – exist to benefit the mother country, low imports and high exports • 17th century It was introduced, looked to bring in more gold and silver • these are usually investors, seek to take advantage of the natural resources • they wanted to bring in Christianity as well 1600s Bacons Rebellion and  William Berkeley: was governor of Virginia 1642 until 1652 and from 1660 until William Berkeley his death in 1677. He advocated economic diversification and promoted trade between the colonists and the Virginia Indians.  He was involved in the Bacons Rebellion in 1676 against Nathanial Bacon  Bacon established himself of the leader of the farmers, looked to kill native Americans ( he wanted power, this meant land) therefore he killed Indians  Bacon was seen as a rebel ex) burnt down Jamestown  Many of the supporters of the rebellion were indentured servants and slaves, who were a majority of Virginia's population (elites versus servants) social tensions  Racial tensions increased and Internal issues increase (white versus white) It was important because that was the first rebellion of the American colonies. Plantation Society  Was created by the Europeans  It is a society dominated by large landholders who control large land/workforces to produce resources and export them (plantation agriculture)  1680 it went from white indentured servants -> African slaves  Plantation slavery – emerged during the expansion of Europe  Free labour – ppl get paid for work  Capitalism – produced commodities to make profits  Europeans wanted to extract commodities – corrosive labour is established Middle Passage  Is also known as the voyage to the Americas  It was a journey taken by slave ships from west Africa to west indies  Last 3 months  Africans were rammed and chained to each other (diseases spread)  The survivors ended up in sugar plantations in the Caribbean’s before 1700  Important because racial slavery has been adopted  It was the center point of the "triangle trade" that exchanged European goods for slaves, and then sold the slaves to the colonies for raw materials to take back to Europe to make more goods to trade.  It brought a cheap labor force - in the form of slaves - to the new world which made raw materials cheaper in Europe and bolstered trade around the world  It was also responsible for the deaths of millions of Africans and the enslavement of millions more. Olaudah Equiano Metacom  Also known as King Philip's War, 1675–76,  To protect their lands, the Wampanoag chief King Philip (Metacom) organized a federation of tribes, which in 1675 destroyed several frontier settlements  It was an intense military warfare between English settlers and Indians because of the land  Main land English colonies experienced native American attacks  This led to the civil war. Results: During the war, 800 England settlers were killed, towns were destroyed and damaged  The goal was to extinct the Indians  Important: it is one of the most devastating war between the colonists and the Native Americans in New England Patriarchy  Comes from the Greek word Pater and Archein (father and rule)  people use it to refer a male dominated society  A system in which power and resources in society are dominated by men at the expense of women.  Important because it shows the gender roles between men and women in colonial society  example of patriarchal organisation of European settler families (boxes below show father signify dependents)  son would heritage property from father to help support your fa
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