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Nadia Jones- Gailani

¬Contact: North America’s first peoples and the arrival of the Europeans (1500’s) Major Themes: • Early European explorations and their colonization (pre contact and indigenous) • 1500- population, north America 500,000 to 2 mill – these are concerted in the west coast, British Columbia, because of their climate, allows larger pop to develop • Looking at historical artifacts, older text did not go away, the study of pre context was in rich – art, • Population: north and (south majority lived in the western/warm parts, latin and American) • diversity and innovation • How did they get here?: research confirms, people are from Asia (roots) , they travel to north American by the way of land bridges, connects Siberia with Alaska why? The shifting of the plates and the temperature change. Water was in cased in ICE, as a result land was exposed • Canada’s first ppl, were diverse! They are scattered into and divided into 12 lang groups • Ex) Huron and the five nations – they speak Iroquoian, they are different, French vs latin (but still different), Better number 50 diff lang being spoken, takes a long time to involve • Pre contact – they are not static – they don’t stay the same they are constantly changing, ex) kicking aborigals out – trying to progress and get better, there is a lot of innovation as well • Ex) Southern Ontario: 10,000 years ago, climate is cold, is populated, scattered, these ppl are hunter gathers (constantly moving from one location to another) was climate warm – pop beings to expand, bigger and complex. Other people being to experiment with agricultural – crops, framing , as environment changings the people do as well, they also display technological innovation ex) create things that makes life easier for them ex) spears, fishing weir, the buffalo run – technology – is used by indgingou people of plains, alberta and Sascat – involves of contraction of walls, piling rocks on each other on til they are a few feet high, KEY RESOURCE for the plains people, running so fast and run off the edge of the cliff – BUFF- > RUN >– WALL –> CLIFF = FOOD LOL Classification is very hard – 12 lang but in it has several others (these are methods they used) • They had different cultures, lang therefore is tricky • Other way is politics – nations- groups of people with a common land and objective that get together to go against other nations – this is also misleading both are • Reign – recognizes the importance of environmental factors • Examples of linguistic groups ex Regions 1) Northwest Coaost, Haida, 2) Plateua (kootenay)– pink bit on the map, similar to the north west coast- relies on salmon like Haida 3) plains (athapaskan) - treated ppl well but not buffalo – replied on the buffalo to survive – it is a resource for them, make blankets, clothing , can trade 4) sub arctic dene – replies on the hunting aspect 5) Arctic (inuit) - worst climate – the purple part of the map, people who live in it rely are seals and caribou – major leader in technological aspect, snow shoes, sleds, harpoons to kill things, Northeastern – mild climate, allows for different types of economic opportunities, agriculture is important, they have larger pop. In contrast to other parts. They have 2 major lang groups, 1) Algonkian (Mikmaq)- orange part of the map, 2) Iroquoian (Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and Huron) they are 2 political groups (within in) the Iroquoian Community. A. The five nations- Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk B. The Huron Both speak the same lang, but they have a revelry - Longhouse -> they both have it, they are horizontal apartment buildings, can hold 10 to 30 fams - Kept held by trees, (saplines and tree bark) – to keep the house up - Matriarchal Means) points to prominent role played by women in IQ community, men also play a key role as well, ex) military chiefs, important leader and prestige) but women choose who they want to go fight for them and can choose to replace them if hes a dud A new World 1) Early Explorations: the Norse were the first, have a occupation and launch expeditions, they interact with the Beothuk – in NFL, the norse go from Greenland to NFL , competition in trade, because of cooling temp! it became difficult for the norse to maintain their territory in Greenland because its too cold – their expeditions could not be launch – they visited VINLAND IN NFL – Berry’s were found their – wine land! Around 1415, the norse are forced to abandon their land and replace by the early modern era – around 1500 to 1800 , replaced the European power who compete against each other in the Americas – Spanish, Portugal, English and the French motivated in imperial behaviours by a. Competition, all compete for glory, resources, power, egos fueling modern imperialism b. Commerce- trading one thing for another – “comditity” access Asia areas for spices and get to the indies by crossing the Atlantic – wanting a westerly root to Asia c. Christianity- they believe it’s their responsibility to tell people about Jesus, salvation and if they do not convert they go to hell Christopher Columbus – Italian mariner John Cabot- who is he? • COD FISH- found in the eastern part of NFL – in this period people had simply dropped rocked baskets – rich source – the GRAND BANKS – environment, shallow water, helps to explain the concentration of cod fish, they become appealing, seen as filling, beef of the sea, pop in the roman catholic communities • French, Spanish would come in large numbers during the spring time and join this COD FISHERY • COD FISHERY – can be the first big business in North America • 10,000 people would visit trying to acquire this “beef of the sea” • 1520s, French get involed, but beating by the other 3 • In that decade, they dispatch sailer named – Giovnni De Verrazaon the purpose was to establish a French empire, he thinks hes going to find a series of island to wealthy market of ASIA, he does not find it cause it does not exist but what he does discover- he gains info on how to travel on the northern coast of north American, • Jacques Cartier- important French mariner, born north western france, uses this info for, 3 goes vogues 1530’s are important to the establishment of the FRENCH EMPIRE! • 1534: first vogues, he enters the golf of the st.lawerence, he comes in contact with indgious people mikmaq, people had encountered other European members, according to his journal – “set up a great calimer” and – wanted to trade – FUR, he trades a bit to make connection, than they travel, • The French led by JC- curiosity about a new people attracted them and also superiority – reasons for French, they capture the sons of local sons of the chief – DONNACONA is the chief and his sons got taken, these two young men will be brought back and displayed to the royal court as evidence – they met a different type of people, wanted to exploit them and teach them French, they want to get rich too (similar to Spain who wanted gold and exploited the Indians) • But issues – diseases, germs, in the environment, their body was not naturally immune it to, the kids are displayed • They tell the French about the Kingdom of Saguenay – a river in Quebec, they have materials, similar to what the Spanish found, they tell them that they can show them where it is, its chopper but silver or gold • The French went back to north America – 1535 goes back and brings back the 2 sons. He than goes up the river, • He connects with the iq people, they met the village, NAMED CANADA – applied to people who live in the valley of the st.lawerence, the promise of the idea that both kids will be brought back, and than invites JC to his home and introduces the European to their village name CANADA • • Scurvy: it whips out 100 ppl in JC’s crew, 25 die, the help with the IQ PEOPLE, didn’t allow the scurvy to get worst and gave them a sort of drink – that had vitamin C and resisted Scurvy – low vitamin C • ppl may argue that they were ungrateful , because now he takes the actual chief back to France, the India to extract info and find out more about the kingdom of north America – this time all 3 taken captive, they all die, third 1541 • goal now is to establish colonies and create roots • French disrespect these people, they believe they can go anywhere and trade, French broken a lot of guidelines • 1541 – violence clashes btw put people, 30 important colonizers die • JC and his people return to France and for the next couple of years ignore imperialism and try to find other methods – example the use of RELIGION rather than land imperialism • Late 1500’s another key is the fur industry • THE NEW FRANCE – comes in to existence because of the fur TRADE Fish, fur and faith: the origins of New France Beginnings of the fur trade: fishing was the first big business • Develops as a by product, started off with fish then fur. They came for the fish and stay for the fur, climate: when the weather goes bad ppl leave, fur used for hats, garmets – very fashionable high prices in European markets • Winter – fur trade, French begin to establish close fruitful relationships with the aboriginals – north eastern region • French are integrated in the trade network, - st.lawerence valley • The French government, looked for a base or location. To look after and control their economic activitys in north America • Samueal De Champlian: is a sailor and a map marker, makes a visit in the new world, in 1603 – (NOT REALLY THE NEW WORLD) cause a system was already established • 1604- Group of ppl spend time in nova scotia, they establish a colony named port royal or acadia (PRADISE) It has better climate – first permanent European settlement which is now Canada. • 1608- SDC, travels to st.lawerence valley and establishes a fur trading post, from this post the frnech were able (HOPED) to control access of the interior of north America – animals that turn in to fur and also discourage competition- they want to be in full control • He builds a series of posts –qubec becomes the most important centre in 1608 • The French assert their rights to this land, based on jc of his “discovery” aboriginals believe their own land, why do they let the French come in and tolerate their presence? 1) Trade network ex) algonkians they needed European manufactured goods such as metal tool, cooking tools 2) Military – the algonkians look to the French as potential alleys when their in conflicts with other groups. key riveray: Algonkians vs Huron – they have become involved in a bitter military struggle in the 5 five nations (western new york now). French have access to muskets – guns! Their bringing in new technological aspects Same as the French – hunters are essential resource for the French, because they know how to do it and want non-western knowledge. Ex) scurvy wasn’t worst because the aboriginals told them about BRU, they need things like snow shoes, things needed to survive – they have a strong bond 1609- the French led by SDC- founder of qubec – he agrees to join 2 groups with the A AND H to attract the 5 nations, ex) muskets of the huge played a huge advantage and shook the 5 nations – they flee and take off. The ones remained for mucked. SDC- he was an artist and draws a picture that captures the clash, he places himself with a gun Louis the 13th – spurs the growth of French north America- he wants to strengthen colony’s he does this by mercantilism – it is an economic philio – 1 principle – it exists to benefit the mother country ex) new French should exist to better old France 1) exploit the natural resources of the colony such as fur 2) use the colony as a market to sell your manufactured goods – use new france as a market ! 1627- the French government creates a private company goes by (COMPANY OF 100 associates) overview the progress, these are usually investors, seeks to take advantage of the natural resources, they are given a monopoly but have to do something in exchange ex) they had to promote roman Catholicism, new France was before diverse, new France becomes catholic and they must promote population growth – encourage French immigration to the new French world. Christianity and commerce • Huguenot ? were protestant and objected against certain practices. INDULUGANCES IS AN ISSUE • Believe that body dies by soul lives forever in Christianity, soul goes to go heaven or hell, or a middle place both good and bad • 1500’s certain church official roman cath – had taken to the practice of selling indulgences paying their way to heaven. Elements of the church seen this as corruption, this sparked the prostant reformation • Many other ppl within the catholic church – were against this practise and the idea that it had lost its goodness and spirit in the church, - look at religion notes! 2 groups that helped shape new france – may be on a test 1) Ursulines – Marie de l’incarnation – is a female catholic order, concerned with education, a nun and you devote your life to the church – roman catholic, they assume responsibility for females in schooling, - religious, their job is to teach both French girls and aboriginal girls, the education system is not secular, they are tightly intertwined, one of the task is to promote Christianity, wanted to promote western values, they seek to recruit and persuade aboriginals family’s – boarding schools for girls, some of these girls embrace and accept the system of Christianity but most of them did not. Ex) MDI- she is the leader of the ursuline leader, she’s in the outside of the church, after he dies coverts to Christianity- devotes her life to rlg roman Catholicism, she comments of the resistance of the new world ex) slide. 2) Jesuits – huronia jean de brebeuf - society of jesus, male order, rep for devoted missionaries War with the Iroquois (5 nations) Religion and commerce • Key group the French get along with is the huron, it gets closed in the 1630’s • English gain of new france, then they regain control and that’s when the relationship begings to intesifty • They tell the huron, they must accept roman catholic missionaries ex) JESUITS • Remember they both need eachother and to continue their they must accept • And they did • JDB- lives among the hurons, permany – trys to convert natives to their rlgion, they are resourceful, they work very hard the (J), similairtys – they both believe in afterlife, they believed in the idea of godly forces tht shape events of the earth, j is celebrate they have no sex or believe to have one partner, huron didn’t like this one of the major differences • Why are the huron willing to accept change, they were buying into the principles of Christianity • And economics they wanted to continue to have access to European access goods and have close relationships, used indulgence, the French bring more to the Huron then rlg and trade they bring diseases ex) small pox is worse than chopping off the pop • War contributes, starvation – 1 major issue is disease • How does the huran react to the issue of small pox and things like trades/rlg • They believe that since the j was immune, these ppl must be dealing with dark – black magic type shit lol , seen as evil sorcerers • meetings are held, members of the community get together and discuess what to do with the emergence of this disease that is whipping ppl old and young away, ppl kicked them away the J, they wanted to punish these individuals during the 40s and 60s • But because they are dependent on the French, the j’s still stayed • Reasons for Warfare – pop, disease • Struggle of resources contribute to this rivery, Dutch are teamed up with the 5 nations vs French and the huron • Guns were involved, 5 nations were well equipped because of their strong connect • They launch an invasion on the huron 1649 community, members attack huran, they whip out much of the their community, huran were already weak, their numbers halved because of disease society was divided also – Christians vs non-Christians • The guy got executed lol • The result, huron is basically wiped out, they believe that their society is doomed, as a result they destroy the remaining structures and resources so the 5 nations don’t use it and disperse (migrate) – individuals freeze to death or are taken into captivity • New France is vulnerable and French itself is vulnerable as well – Dutch and 5 nations can get some hits • They needed a new vision to keep their empire alive ESSAY THE Word CIVILIZED The royal takeover and the development of the New France May 2012, 28 Key questions- how did the French shore up to power in their country - from 1663-1760 • King Louis, all authority drived through him, (I am the states) • State was the extension of Louis, • His rule was absolute • In the picture- gold – symbolizes the richness of the king • Economic and political philop – he wants to make new France a colony so ppl can be proud of it • He used mercantilism! Key word – means the colony exist to benefit the mother country • It becomes dependenment – france can exploit new France for its new colony- ex) fur would take place in the colony – the resource is manufactured at home and sold their • Colony is the provider for goods and services – for the finished product – working to make enough money • King l – wanted to strengthen new France, he relied heavily on jb- Colbert – French empire, he was the go to guy in new France , they believe that if they want to make money outside the home land they need to make provisions – royal take over Crucial institutions( church and state ) - They are trying to make a copy of their structure in the new france – same time thinking (why wont it work) Government change – • a new structure with the king as the absolute authority 1. Governor (supreme authority in France military and focusing on enemies like 5 nations and British) just 2. Intendant deals with legal affairs and financials – deals with the day to day 3. bishop (sovereign council ) these are the( Jays) 1663, they thought the church posed a threat to king supremacy - after the royal take over the church was diminished – it influence day to day lives - together the governor and the intendant = the sovereign council to govern new France - it was a top down system - it was a replica of the mother country - justice was very cheap and swift - it went to a top down structure - the tension between church and state – state wins Economic- most important change Seigneuiral system Landlords (seigneurial) Censitaries (tenants)- these guys do not own their own land, they rent from the landlords- landlords need the tenants to fix up the land, dependence is key, both landlords and tenants had a lot of responsibilities – tenants had to clear the land and occupy it, to collect money, landlords had to maintain the rows, first row and second so it can access the river, they had to perform unpaid labour – if tenants – possessions of the land, til the land for the S, this than can be sold to someone else or pasted down to his son, either way had to go to landlord than to the king – they were at the bottom of the chain, its cold! As a result short growing season - 1663- the system changed , - New france was divided- connect this to S system - Church bell – daily life- ex) bell – time to pray – large social impact - They had common land, church land, house or buildings - all lands were property of the king- he owns all of this Canadiens is the name of the censitaries- indigenous identity, they really identified with their new life, - Jean talon is the intendant in 1665 (of new france, third in command from the king) he wanted to increase new france productivity – he enforced the idea of occupying the land, landlords left the land to its tenants, believe that it was to much power given to the ppl as a result he wanted to reform the system and enforce more rules on the landlords because they aren’t doing crap - (how are we going to shore power) they looked at the agriculture aspect - He brought in new industries such as shipbuilding and fishing – in order to make revenue, it improved in increase of pop, and having a known present in the colony, they make economic increase, 1913 treaty, new france enjoyed a sustained peace important! Improved the colony because they focused their energy else ware 3 centres –a place where trading occurs, iron works, draws ppl and employs ppl. Created pops and cans, military crap, more manufacturing on the grounds and selling it back to the ppl living there. Flower mills important – helps keep ppl survived – bread! - The highway: meant you can travel Montreal to Quebec in 9 days vs. st Lawrence weeks, - allows more trades - Agricultural surpassed fur trade- contributed in diet standards and the rise of pop, increased by 250 percent in 40 years- more ppl . more ppl farm, improve daily live, able to sustains their fam, - They were able to survive through winter, - He had a vision and was willing to try stuff – to help diverse the colony, ship building failed by iron works did and connection mtl and Quebec – help the state to be more organized and more productive Social change – peace - 1663 (ratio of women to men) 1 to 8 - Peace is important, allows for things to get done - filles du roi important for term test– get more women so produce more kids – gets orphans , they were unable to handle harsh winters so he decided to get healthy women, improvised community’s, found ppl who were looking for change or individuals who are willing to move, getting money or gifts - showing the women a better life, they just had to move - 800 daughters were dispatched in 10 years, women chose who they wanted to marry, they those very quickly (2wks) - These ladies were picky, they had something to go to - a man who was a fur trader, good locations - New france pop increased 3000 – 10,000 1663 year of the royal takeover to 10 year later - Kept growing natural rather than immigrants – it was a self producing colony, - Family were larger from 8 to 9 children – 1 of 5 kids died first year of life, 20% of kids dying, they still had 6 kids at most - Reminds us of the harshness, of winter, no screening, technology wasn’t that advanced, it was part of the everyday, family took it hard, - Indentured servants – engages – worked 3 year contacts, work for merchants, small wage, after 3 years they were free from their responsility (attracting more men) they had lots of opportunities – ppl would just sign up , - these are other segments of the pop - Ppl choosing to go over, ppl don’t lost money, it’s a nice way to experience change. - 17th c beginning – the numbers of engages increased - SLAVERY IN NEW FRANCE!! Essay - New France was racially diverse – aboriginals is their ,reliance or co- dependence? - French need the abs – but same time they do trades with England – kind of conflict - Slavery in new france – slaves were abs caught by other abs or they were Africans captured during raids Roads and Women being created and coming in – important Iron works – had a good business because their was a demand for things such things – cans, pops, tools for daily uses – as pop grows demand grows – new family’s Pop is investing in the colony itself He is a very successful man, colony has increased, diversity in society, productive Back to q- strong government change, systems – s system and investing and also letting things happen through social things – give the colony what it needs and let it flourish They take on that canadien identity! Church and state remain cruaul – state most important but church remained an informative influence on daily lives, church was their for the life rights, death, marriage, baptism – there influence was more social For colony to change it needs to be productive – the golden age the peace period- allowed for transformation But now 1776 – British are intimidated – brings in tension! Imperial Rivalry and The Conquest - Involves 2 European countries Imperial r – Anglo American expansion = first one in 1607, - England was establishing itself as an imperial rivalry French Radisson and groseillers – they suggest traveling north , towards Hudson bay, so they can harvest fur bearing animals – they wanted to cash in, they go to the French, the French in the late 17th c are not too sure and did not want to support their venture. These two guys are ambitious, and take their plan to the English who are riverays of the French. English see it was a good deal, and do the cost benefits thing – they receive a license to supports r and g for their economic venture. - This was a very successful venture and return to north eastern united states – with rich plevets to harvest - 1670 – the English came and gives them a monopoly – near the Hudson’s bay, the English crown - This region that is claimed from the English - They name this land “ruperts land” the company that emerges is the Hudson’s bay co – 1670 – hear before Christ - There is English colonies, in the north – the English basically claimed this territory – it doesn’t mean the aboriginals go away, and does not prevent the france to be involved in the trade - New france suffers greatly from the destruction of Huron – because of warfare, it’s a major inconvenience for the French why? Because the ppl of Huron were survived as a go between- they lost that connection - How do they respond to these challenging circumsionstanes French response- 1670s - Westwood expansion – French explorer la salle – is a fur trading and dispatched – to claim new territory west from the st Lawrence valley. He establishes trading posts, west towards the great lakes, now they are dealing with the second largest lake- and setting up shops in the missipi - He travelled – and made it the gulf of Mexico – he claims for France all lands with bodies of water that flow into the misispi – this is a huge expansive piece of land - He names it Louisiana! - Late 17th and 18th c – was a period of sustain – continued warfare between two groups the French and English/British - First phase – 1689 to 1713 – unique type of warfare - gentlemen warfare at a particular time and place – standing off – and being to kill each other – sneak attacks , raids and etc known as gorilla warfare – very informal in the 18th cen – its evident 1689 to 1701 – during this period the france are in constant warfare with the 5 nations or the iqourate – this Gunit Warfare- different informal approach of warfare – the French based in north America adopt g unit tactic themselves - Peace period – to 1713- 1740s - Continues from 1740s to 1760s- unique type of warfare - the French are vulnerability – they have a small pop, - French advantages aboriginals allies with ojbwa(Ottawa) – algonkian speaking groups these are seen as nations - gift diplomacy - they have economic, social one way they try to substation these relationships is through fur trade, it starts out as a way to get rich – same as cod fishery, the turn of the 18th c – fur trade goes down economically – but the stratigic of the fur trade goes up – agriculture replaces fur trade but they they continue so they keep these relationships intact – another way is – gift diplomacy – to pay rent, particular places and times both representations of groups come together at the same place and exchange gifts – because the French are suing their land – refornces close relationships – they can get guns, ammo, the french are able to hold their own during the first phase of ware- they perform quite well, because of their relations with the natives 1713- they suffer, because of the things that happen in Europe the treaty of Utrecht - how has Canadian history shaped up through international relationships – brings to a close – involves European countries the ware of the Spanish succession – European conflict – has major implications, using this war – the french need to make concession – negotiations – swapping that goes on, example giving up tettority to each other, they perform worse in European and give 3 things to the British (concession) 1) give up their claims to nfl – cod fishery but they hang on to fishing off the coast of nfl – coastal fishing rights 2) the rights to the posts around Hudson bay – French were active their as well, they have to vacate all their trading posts – fur trade ex) losing alliances, ex) Ottawa and ojiba 3) most important – they give up the control of Acadia the most important part of new france – modern day maritime provinces 1713- officially changes to nova scotia. This is a major effect on the french empire – because of the things that’s happening around other parts of the world They retain control much of the north amercia –most important they hang on to the st.lawerence valley – they are still established their, from mtl t o qubec- they hold on to st. johns island – prince Edward island and last key thing the royal island – cap Briton island, - they precede to construction on a major buildings that are going to be really important in the French region – they call it Louisburg – they can participate in cod fishery on il royal – new France emerges in the 17h c – they are seen as a military society – all men 16 -60 required to join the militia – citizen soldier – member of the community it is your duty to fight for your colony (first phase of warefare) 1713- end of the Spanish warfare and treaty of u – The whole history of the colony (peace period) – basically intermission Advantages of the ppl of New France during this peace period - only period of sustained peace, - example: new industries emerged – the kings highway – connects mtl and Quebec - the st.lawerence valley is known as Canada – they apply that term to the entire region - the french speaking ppl – Acadians stay - the aftermath of the treaty of u – - british authority were confronted with a q – how are these ppl going to be govern - french the speak the lang. - as a trade-off they take a qualified loyalty oath Acadians - they say that if warefare breaks out the Acadians don’t have to fight other french ppl – ex) Canada – il do it but don’t make me fight other french speaking Catholics - golden age – they take this oath and than experience the ga – 1) pop expands 2500 to 10,000 through natural increase 2) economic growth – agricultural productivity – bringing fruitful farms – they develop a very complex sustain of dikes – this allows them to harness the water and take advantage of the water - contributes to the growth, second phase of warfare – 1760s end the most significcant event – is the 7 years war: middle of the 1750s the govener of new france – Duquesne based in qubec most important town – cements french authority – he wants to strengthen french claims to the Louisiana 1754- group of french soujas go to the south of if the great ake errie – they are told to bulid a fort- “fort d”, they come across English speaking ppl, theres a clash – who want to prevent the french claims in the mid west, this unit is led by George W. unclear who wins, this sparked a world wide convict – that is important for Canadian history named the 7 years war: 1756-1763 this battle south of the great lakes takes place in 1754, French and Indian war – worldwfide struggle, new France find itself at a disadvantage – Frances north American empire is wildly disperse, the entire ppl is actually small. Takes 1 year to exchange letter from Quebec city to new Orleans controlled by the French – poor routes of communication, the French hold their own – 1755, the chief of birtish general - Edward braddock – develops a strageity hopes for b to have major control over the french, includes an attack on fort d, brad himself leds professional shoulders to fight this war, - informal style of war – g-unit the british are ambushed by abs and french shows g unit style of fighting and alleys and they win a major victory- Braddock himself defeated and is killed what is angel American? The British experience set backs, they become uneasy, they feel threated they have huge pop and resources but the French are able to fight back – they are nervous and fearful – very important for the French speaking ppl that live in novia scotia Mi kmaq – always clashing with the British – they claim the French (Acadians) for this – they believe that they are telling them to attack them, its because they resent the creeping English speaking onto their lands, they blame the French for the messed up rlg of the b and m - lowerence starts arguing – that this loyalist does not cut it anymore they want a unqualified loyalty oath – he says you know what: its not going to well, as a result if we tell you to fight with the French than you have to, French are confused – they are neutral - they decided to kick them out, 1755 is the Acadian expulsion – 3 quarters of the pop out of nova scotia, 13000 ¾ of that, where do they go? They can’t go to Canada, because they will be stronger, so they want to spread them and scatter them south of new france – sent on boats to other English speaking colonies – British destroy many of their homes so they can’t come back - many ppl, died before making to their new colonial homes, families are sep nd divided up ex) either Virginia or UMASS (Saeed) - Acadian went to cadian than to CAJUN – origin of the french speaking culture in the US The turning tide – begins to turn in the late 1750’s Factors 1) military clash within the French forces, 2 ppl clash over how the 7 years of war should be waged Governor of New France – Canadian born – vaudreuil vs French born montcalm Over how are we going to fight this war? – main reason of conflict – v wants gorilla warfare and reliance on the abs and take advantage of these relationships, he believes that they both will launch lil attacks here and there on the b, m says were outnumbered, we need to focus on the our resources money, ppl, ammo in Canada where Quebec is – we can’t spread ourselves to thin. They side with M! This turns out to be a bad choice for the French 2) the rise of William pitt to the office of P.M of the B, elder one , why does this matter? He decides to make the north amercian part – he sends out more professional troops ot north American , pumps a lot of money to the war effort – buying soulkas weaopsn and ammo – gets navy as well to create a wall that keeps the french getting supplies getting resources from the ocean – 1758- the b destroy something in cap Briton – the real loiuis burg is destroyed – unable to depend their forts and posts, they have to leave them because their outnumbered, fort d – beings with that The b – found a new settlement and destroy fort d and create something else named Pittsburgh – french outnumber by the british, the stage is set for the b conquest of Canada –james wolfe is told to attack qubeic wanted to destroy quebec – 1759 sept – the b time of the essence – either act or retreat before winter, wolf wants to attack – m thinks attack is coming from the east, wolf sees this and attacks from the west, 13 sept 1759 – you’re going up stream – the st lawerence, he puts his French speaking soldiers – the French speak out guard let them in, past quebec and attack them from the west, he succeeds and goes up the heights and draw the French into a fight, m confronts wolf (PLANES OF ABARAHAM) wolf dies on the battlefield, b forces win on the planes of ab and are in now control of q This is one of the most single important war – ends the French struggle Themes: Aftermath of the conquest and Americans first civil war Important material – series of wares last class - It was hard for the French to resupply, they try to lay siege to Quebec - The French idea is to starve Quebec - British navel dominance – shaping Canadian history - French retreat to mtl- they can’t accomplish anything and are forced to surrender in mtl - The British win and conquer Canada - 1760 after: the b establish military rule over Canada, ppls rights are suspended, b military are in charge - Goal was to turn these ppl into royal b suspects – English speaking protestants - French society – governed by a British reign - The power of France is going down while British is going up - They don’t capture the power of the natives - - Canada has this alien pop. For French speaking – ppl clash, the priority is to move west – expanding their sphere of influence – families expand, if you wanted a decent life – key method is agricultural – social pressure – is pressing them to go to the west, this resulted to a clash Key 3 things in this lecture 1. 1763 – treat of Paris – end of the 7 year war, introduces (Pontiac) Angel American colonist, Pontiac leads the aboriginal – natives get together trying to resistant the individuals who are taking their land, language is political – words carry a political significant, he starts the fight Pontiac seeks to counter what the angel Americans are doing 2. Pontiac’s war – is successful, capture British fort, they are successful in killing angel American settlers, one key British military is – the introducing of biological warfare – this is the British used it to fuck up the natives. Starts in the spring 1963 – ppl had to return to their farms – aboriginals- 3. The threat – was very scary for the British, they respond EXAM: Royal proclamation – sets aside 4 native groups, sustaintional territory south of the great lakes – it is unacceptable, their families are expanding, good fertile land is hard to get ppl want to move west, angel Americans who are with the british are told they cant move to the west, relations were getting diterianted between colonist and government James murry – first British governor of Quebec – ppl don’t want to move north want west, murray shifts his stragey from assimilation to appeasement (making them peaceful), so he can get along with the French American - In order to do this, they seek to create good relations with powerful elements in French Canadian society, he gets along with ppl in the roman catholic church, he helps the church and they promote loyalty to the French - Fighting against kings and crap – is kind of a sin, Christians respect the king in this case, French ppl and the British, he gets along with the landlords as well, the land of the st.lawerence river, S – are basically arositicartic, who control the land on the day to day bases (members of the social elite) they have farmers or peasants who take care of the land – murray – knows assimilation is not happening so makes friends church and landlords so the French does not rise Exams Introduces the Quebec act 1774 – legislation – crafted by the British government in London, it has 4 main elements 1) it extends the boundaries of the colonials are extended Quebec – substainically, extended south of the great lakes, these are lands set aside for the natives, they want Quebec to continue to be in the fur trade and allowed to travel 2)the rights of the catholic church is continued: means – example) the church of the result of the act to collect tithe – basically giving a share of your income – catholic did this during the French and the British says they can continue to do this. 3) continuing of French civil law, British criminal law and French civil law is allowed to be remained 4) established an appointive council – they are not elected, the governor chooses some key ppl who are loyal to the b, and appoints them who are british who are loyal to appease the French Angel American settles vs the crown – issue, extending the boundaries: cant move west, the b keeps them from doing that, it gives privileges to the catholic church while the angel Americans are protestant and they don’t like these appointment councils they believe in democracy for society – property owning white men, they are pissed off with the biriths government and associate this act with the intolerable act – taxination without representation, they have no say if they want to accept these taxes, this relation is breaking down and this led to the breakage to the British empire – caused by the American revolution !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. they are so upset, and july 4th 1776 – declare of their indepence from british – seek of the q act, it’s a key position - imposing taxes on us without consent and abolishing the free system of English alws – establishing arbitrary government etc they believe that in the future this will happen to them and they are getting a taste – as a result all big names – gather in philly to dicuss whats going ot happen next – American revolution – creates 2 new countries Canada and amercia Pursuing assimilation (seigniorial system and seigneurs – does not happen. Ppl don’t want to go north, French Canadians 1775- we see the shock of the begningof the amercian rev Amercian colonist vs government. A A invade quebec – they believe that they would be embraced as liberators – they believe that the French Canadians are conqured ppl, Americans want to liberate the French Canadians, Quebec is this period on vulnerable – the question would it be one or British French Canadians attitude: meh, they are not sure where they are going to go, amercian invade mtl and focus in on quebec city, it’s a huge important city – if amercians get it, French Canadians are much less receptive to the AA, AA were hungry and took things without asking, AA disrespect roman cath church, there is a lil support for the AA, AA cant take quebec and leave the invaision- the French Canadians want neutriality they see lil diference btw AA and Brisith - quebec as a colonial is still remained in the hands of the british,, north Americans natives are divided, 6 nations now, after ponitics ware the britsh look to have a nice relationship with the natives, key figure trying to develop a good relationship with the B And A are William Johnson – b colonist, promoting positive relations, 1775 – irioqura – killer of the ppl – but call themselves as the ppl of the longhouse B wants the A’s support, they are successful, for this war, amerciansians win 2 of the six nations ONEIDA AND TUSCARORA the B’s get Mohawk and Senec, joseph brant is a Mohawk chief but also a Christian, sister marrys WILLIAN JOHNSON, he gets the Mohawk and s on broad, Onondaga and Cayuga are neuturil – but once attacked by AA they go to the B side The amercian revolution ends 1781 – last key battle takes place in the Yorktown, the French support a key role and get revenge on the b cause of the 7 year wars British say we can keep fighting but to what end? If we win there will be a new up rising, let them go and this what happens the Amercians win, officially the second treaty of paris 1783 ends the amercian revolution – britian, vades north amercia, all east from Mississippi river are given to the Americans – 1783 – natives get nothing – they get snaked, b does not want to fight anymore – brant feels betrayed, wants to stay on decent terms, British gives brant lands southern and south western of given forever However, many groups, from poverty make land transaction to the European cause their broke Loyalist: tories: angel American colonist who rejected the AA and who were determined to remain to the briths empire, ppl who remained committed to Britain, ¼ to 1/3 were unsure if they supported the rev or not, they accepted the new normal During the era of the AA, they are given the name tories – slang term for member of the conservative party – neutral label 18th c, the name has a negative meaning They are a minority and are subjective to double and triple taxsanation, property gets taken from them or in prison because they opposed AA, harsh treatment is at its worst, 1781 to 83 why? This is when the Americans win the war, basically how dare you come back, because they resent what they have done - Often the laws go unenforced, they are not back into their community’s - During the rev and after 10,000s leave the American colonials and go elsewhere – 7o,000 L’s - Large number, more than the large pop of Canada, ppl moving – refugees – m1 New Brunswick 1784 – Elite myth of the loyalist – certin groups of ppl were benefited in the reigion – later suffered the most, loyalist who moved to Canada were elites – in some cases true and most not, they go to britian or caribain and set up plantations their, ppl who move to north – are similar to the avg amercian citizen – socially and economically simialirty – they are diverse ppl – include resent immigrants, Germany, britian, women and men, religious minoirites ex) quakers opposed to violence, key idea, the british empire is better to the treatment of their minorities, the AA based on principles of democracy – but also based on the majority of rule, then the Americans, 2000 aboringal loyalist, many are member of the 6 nations who fought for the b and 6000 American black loyalist, this number is problematic half were enslaved, ppl from the south who moved to Ontario – the elites bring out the sslaves, these individuals are freed, slavery to freedom British crown takes care of the loyalist – Britain sees a chance to have control of the Quebec, often if you fought during the AA , is based on land that’s given to you, tools are given, so they can be productive 50,000 go to the north british colonies in what becomes Canada, novia scotia becomes the single largest group, affracted by open land and given by the crown. Influential loyalist are in the west, they are upset they are to far from capital their concerns cant be expressed, they create a new colony called NEWs BRUNSWICK 1784- they named the capital after the son of the crown, novia scotia are cheesed, many of their lands have been taken up, resources have been stretched thin, more than half the Atlantic reign go else ware Free blacks, their life was not easy, if you fight for your freedom, blacks fight for britian, they are subjected to hard life, they give them tools and the worst plots of land, shitty tools for them, discrimination also, their life was not easy and difficult, 1000 blacks arrive and end up enngering a back to Africa campaign and go back to western part of Africa in the span of one life time, Back Loyalists Upper Canada and the War 1812 For next tut- who is the author, what is their argument, how does he/she prove her argument? Major themes 1. the making of upper Canada 2. the war of 1812 3. outcomes Key term: loyalist EXAM Constitutional Act, 1791: 2 characteristics – references for the loyalist, chops the old colony of q into two, and creates two new colony west UPPER CANADA AND EAST LOWER CANADA. It is divided by the Ottawa River. Why does Britain do this? 1) Response to loyalist anxiety, its populated, no economic opportunity. 2) It has to do with the second absence of an elective assembly – so people can make laws Name is based on the flow of the water. Both C’s are democratic, you got to own property to vote, if you don’t own property you can’t make decisions cause you have nothing to lose, property: own land. Both men and women 1791 can vote, miss leading, most women did not vote cause no property or women who are not married, widowed, having a single child or a house full of females. Only 5% of ppl owned property verses west: lots of land, lots of vote and buy land for a low price It is shaped by a sense of anxiety based on a British 1) American rev 2) French rev Scared of violence, rebels, individuals who disturb the norm: the act is a counter revolution document Elective assembly: appointive council Ex) look at the constitutional act from the power point assembly – we want roads legislative c- can block that John Graves Simcoe –is a governor- is a soldier, fights and commands troops ex) in the American rev and Yorkton 1781 – seals the fate of the British, concerns of America and the social and political representation. Republic 1) that means it’s a state with a monarch ex) America and 2012 Canada 2) legit political authority is drived from pop consent – chosen by the people R is a dirty word for him: he sees it as kos, rebel, violence Supports cruel tirony The balanced British constitution – western political theory: basically 3) forms of government 1) monarch rule of 1 ex) governor 2) aristiscayr rule of the few elite 3) Democracy rule of the people – assembly In his perspective: b contains the best 3 characteristics Keeps each other in check What’s to restore british imperial dominance in North America Seeks to use Upper Canada as a base to achieve his objective Hates the amercian rev, wants to hang ppl ex) George W Seeks to transform the environment of upper Canada into a lil Britain – counter revolution alternative to the American republic Plan 1) Promotes immigration – stronger pop, recruits from new America making land available for ppl, or given to people for free. In order to do this – result tens and thousand do this, named as late loyalist: after 1791: political different before devoted to the British empire but now have no commitment to Canada cause they want cheap or free land. Ppl are coming to upper for economic reason rather than political 2) lang. he changes names, Ashkanesbe to thamins. River humber and the don, also possibly to see this as a cultural imperialism – British is in charge, arrogance plays here, 3) Improve infrastructure to get troops from one place to another in an effieent way – road ex) east and west road and north, south names them. This was just the beg, he wanted to restore great b’s empire It is unsuccessful, he asks for major manpower, investments, policy makers are not on broad, he wasn’t supported, he ends up as a tragic hero. Important contribution is: issue of slavery – it is significant in early Canadian history – slaves black and natives - large number of slaves were brought to Canada, several 1000 were still being slaved. Certain slavery to American to British - Elimination of slavery in upper Canada – gradually – not a single upper Canadian was freed, nothing changed, it does say: all slaves under the age of 25 are made free at that age – ppl over 25 are slaves for ever – takes time - Morality plays a role: cant treat humans like this - Economically: environment plays a rule: cash crops like cotton, upper Canada doing have large plantations - In the short term he was unsuccessful - Long term – it was achieved 1 factor – contribute to an anti-American – Is the war of 1812 Reasons for the conflict 1) Naval Blockade - establish a barrier, that keeps countries like the us who are neutral – from getting into French, interfering with maritime – hurting their economy – creates intentions in American society 2) Impressment – ppl leaving the British navy and become sailors in the new American navy with is less strick – British ships had to have it, searching for ppl who are defected who are now serving America’s and they oppress them and bring them back to the British navy (IF YOUR BORN B YOULL DIE B) uses to justified their actions when stopping American ships 3) Tecumseh (War Hawks) – threat of aboriginal war fare – a member of swawnee nation Tecumseh – brings together of reps of ab community’s for a purpose – ex) bringing chiefs together like monarch, rci , Danforth coming together. Fighting back illegal crap that ppl are doing to their land. Historically in the late 18th, more over there’s a group known as the war hawk. They want to conquer territory in what its known as Canada. pride of Indian warfare the war of 1812 - Plays across from north America - Plunges all of these colonies in the state of ware - Maritime Provinces ex) nova it is in significant – Britain needs timber to build ships to fight France, they get much of this from new Brunswick- known as GB woodyard. they also did business with the American buy smuggling - Lower Canada – Americans are no embraced as liberators – because of the successful policy of the British appeasement – makes them peaceful. They make concessions – q act , basically was successful, they tolerate the british empire - Upper Canada and the southern parts – Niagara region are most effected by this war - UC: disadvantages – us pop is 7 mill u p is 75,000, 2/3s are recent immigrants, basically and their politically loyalty is towards Americans because this is where they moved. It isn’t that bad its true theirs a huge gap, but other factors make the circumstance less favorite – American society is deeply divided, support for the war is really strong in the south and the west WAR HAWKS - The war between Britain and American – including CANADA – Thompson believes that the war would be won easily – . Isaac brock – military leader in upper canada, he saw the UC as suspect regarding their loyalty, he believes that they must surrender The war breaks down into 3 stages 1) British success: Isaac brock – he attacks hall American general with the help of the natives, they take over Detroit for the next year, he sees the native and British going to be able to fight back the Americans. He is seen as a b and c hero, his image grows, in 1812 hears bad news and goes from the Niagara region to the queenston heights, he is told about the American invasion. He dies trying to defend the British Empire, we see the emergence of British/Canadian hero women known as Laura Secord: 1813, he hears Americans talking about their next attack, attempting to attack beaver dams. Gets word and then walks on foot too nearest British general and lets him know. This information provided the b and the natives are able to ambush and win. We are seeing British loyalty female and male. Shes important cause she reflects attitudes through ward femininity 2) American recover or rebound: 1813 – they experience some successes, they win navy battles on lake eerie, really important allows them to reclaim Detroit, they than invade upper Canada once again, they don’t hang on to it, moraviantown this is where they win, the leader of the natives tecumsah dies here, most significant – the guy who killed him is known as the Indian killer, problem the death of this man is a major blow on the natives 3) Stalemate: draw- no side can win – neither side gets an advantage, the battle of lundys lane. Single bloodiest war with the most casualites. Takes place in 1814, lasts for 6 hrs, 1500 ppl die, it is evenly distributed, neither side nor the british or American can win, its even battle Treaty of ghent – the status quo ante bellum – means the way things were before the war started - Major developments - Americans don’t succeed yet is seen as a second revolutionary war, standing up to the British, they have some pride cause they stood up to them - Aboriginals: they lost. Influence in terms of military and politically significant declines after this period, they get left behind. They suffer long term - Canadian: we see the emergence of a new national hero: names are above, the british of the british and Canadian identity and anti americium grows result of this conflict Post war ends late 1814 – 1815 – they is massive immgrantion towards upper canada. Ppl relocated to places that later become Canadian provinces . goes from amercian – late loyalties to british. They limit amercian influence, promote loyalty. They have alien acts: this is used for amercians cant own land or hold public acts in upper canada so they can migrate to upper canada. Or ppl who are there are basically screwed. Union of the Canada’s and the struggle for responsible government These are the themes for the night 1. The Struggle for responsible government 2. Mid 19th economic development 3. Mid 19th social development Theme 1) • Rebellions defeated • John George Lambton and lord durhman (report on the affairs of British north America, 1839 Hes sent down from London , he has unlimited power in upper and lower Canada, 1) figuring out what caused the revolution 2) creating new strategies/solutions for rev’s these are his responsibility He spent 6 months in British north American, spends time in lower Canada, the result of his time is very important – exam – his work is published “name is above) English speaking business are vulnerable in lower Canada, essential for power wealth but they are also outnumbered by the French speaking ppl in lower Canada, his issue is he needs to protect them from violent uprising by French Canadians. He expects to find lower Canada, a struggle btn principles – clash btw torries and reformers, he concludes: when he found lower Canada, there was a clash not of principle but races – means clash between French and English speaking Canadians (different ethnics) root of the conflict in lower Canada, and also he finds 2 nations fighting in the boostim (ASS) of a single state – different nations who represent different groups that are forced to live together 2 Recommendations 1) the assimilation of French Canadians – lang, religion, wants to protect English speaking Canadians how? By the Act of union, 1840 – comes from the b government and put together – united providence of Canada (east/west) upper – west lower – east renamed There is one colony now but divided. The constitutional factor is important – they had separate system Quebec and York Legislator but after 1840 became one legislators in Kingston than too Montreal 1 system. Why? To take the group and grind those characteristics down to shead their religion to become like the majority – the 2 sections receive equal political representation – 42 seats each – east and west This is done, even though the pop in lower Canada is larger, 600,000 , 100,000 English speakers rest French. West 400,000 mostly French – why do this? Why wouldn’t Canada east have more seats? That the French Canadians will be routinely out voted by English speaking minorities will always team up with the english speakers in west and beat the French speakers. 2 recomnd. Responsible government – why is this? 1) means govern responsible – should do good things, support legs, laws that are popular by the ppl 2) make the executive accountable to the assembly – RP- important constitution development: - Political theory in the western theory, holds 3 forms of government - Each has pros and cons 1) Monarchy – rule of 1 – pro (courage – gist )smart, carrying can be great, he or she can make a choice and do it, con – if its dumb, or cruel he or she can be nasty, oppress their ppl 2) Aristocracy – rule of the few or elite- pro, they are elite for a reason, distinguished themselves through wealth, wisdom, smart that ordinary ppl dont have con- corrupt – support laws that benefit themselves than the community, 3) Democracy – rule of the ppl – pro its free, liberty, ppl can make decisions for for themselves, cons – mods, they can do w.e they want, negative, Mid 19th c, Canada - By to the greatness of British constitution than America’s This is the new system they created in UNITED CANADA - The executive QUEEN -> governor general -> executive council and legislative same -> house of assembly split in 42 each btw east and west -> pop of the us - Executive and l council are appointed, chosen, the basic idea is that members of the e is to advise the governor whats wise or whats not wise for policies that want to be governed ex) roads - the EC: must be drawn or selected from the majority grouping in the house of assembly – tend to sympathize with each other. They put forward there 8 ppl, they have leaders and through that the governor picks ppl from that 8 given by the house of assembly - what if the EC: does things that the house of assembly don’t like? 2 decisions – if they don’t like what the recommendations are 1) kick out the old and bring in the new 2) Dissolve parliament and hold an election There is a fundamental shift, after reasonable government, from the appointment to the democratic :S - elite to the democratic elements Durham -sir Charles metcafle – follows durham – makes a series of patronage appointments – means government favors for political service ex) given the job to that guy that helped you ex) ali campaign for me and I win and then I give him a job - doing things for your political allies He gives jobs and government contracts that helped him, liberal element (reformers) are upset with this act, Robert Baldwin West and L.H Lafontaine East Metcafe does to do first 1), he trys to do things that ppl like, he appoints liberals, both of them quit, they want to bring in a principle 2). Tension increase, these 2 are reformers and metcafe wants to stick to principle one Main points: - governor can choose his advisors - EC: represent the house of assembly – they have to be chosen from the majority parties 42 a piece, - Before and after – appointed – LC stays the same 24 ppl EC has (8) - Everything is democratic These 2 guys, get ticked off, all memebrs of the EC quit, iit is international developments that play a cruial role in moving the story forward Economically in Britian effects 19th c of Canada – the shift away from mercantilism towards free trade – mercantilism – European perspective – seeks to exploit resources of its colony ex) natural resource fur and you want to use the colony as markets to sell manufactured goods – as a result of technological advancements and democratic changes- this principle goes in decline 1) adam smith publishes a important book – wealth of nations – smith impact – important – he argues: he encourages gov’s like Britain and France to relinquish control of economy – so set up in the role of the development of their economy, he states to allow laws about supply and demand to be freely, individuals will go from waging war to commercial intercourse – make money not war, instead of fighting just trade (B and F). an invisible hand – supply and demand will create peace. British is the first to open the idea to opening the supply and demands laws - Pop in increasing significallty - Factors coming to exstitence - More over first time – the b’s are in peace 1815 - They can focus on developing their economcy - The key development – the repeal of the corn laws – 1847, year of the copplase of the patoop thing - Faction – keep grain prices high to the benefit to b farmers and colonial farmers – these are corn laws - They are propped up by a series of tariffs, are essentially taxes impose on one country on another ex) britian on france , there taxes impose on importing goods. Ex) Canada and the us – both produce apples, produce apples and make it at 5 cent each, the Canadian gov can use taxes to the amercian product unappealing, this forces them to charge more and increase the price of apples 5 to 10 cents – result the Canada apples benefit, they can sell it at 5 cents, - C0rn – includes wheat – basically any type of grain What does this have to do with R G – has huge implications - They can do w.e they want in terms of trade, why control there political and economic ideas – - As a result 1847 novia socita becomes the first colony to get RS – associated a guy name joseph Howe – by 1855 – all atlantic colonies p.e.i and n.f.l got RG - Unitied CANADA: james bruce or lord elgin is put in place of governor of this place, 10 years, R G is granted in 1848, a group of Canadian reformers would wheat to power an election, The major event – rebellion loses bill 1849 – what it does, is pays re – set tuition – repays – ppl who had property damaged during the lower Canadian rebellion – pays out money too ppl who lost crap Rebels themselves are included – this is outrages torries in Canada east, see the granting as evidence R G is here, its more democratic – English torries are going to be more dominated than French – Lord Elgin gives royal assent: means ye I give this rebel lost my approval – supported by the majority – its brought into effect. Torrie mod – they destroyed the parliament Annexation Manifesto – they sign this, say they want Canada east to be absorbed by America- they feel let down and threatened and they seek shelter in the US. All the ppl who signed it are fired, the granting of responsible government Theme 2 Commercial Empire of St. Laweremce – Prosperity in Canada West (reciprocity agreement, 1854) – largest city in Toronto – this is the rise of Toronto in areas, reps a shift in economic orientation, so 1840’s was east vs west 1850’s with the rise of Toronto we see north and south to the united states – free trade contributes to this. The us pop has expanded, there is a demand for British Canadian north American goods – ex) wheat’s, timber are needed to feed the rising pop and to build homes, ppl in the west respond well to the demand of the us. The agreement – means a trade off – 1 characteristic – free trade in natural product (wheat and timber). 1855 after the treaty is talked out– results to the rise of Canada west, Canada east does not – under these new economic conditions. Railway Boom (grand trunk railway) – 100 to 3000 km – this was used for trading, growth in railway has a huge impact on bristih north amercian society, secondary industries became important, unrelated business too – clothes a result of infrasture of railways – contributes to the growth of british econcy and Canada west economy and the rise of west and city of Toronto The Canada’s and the rebellions of 1837-38 Themes 1) Upper Canada after 1815 2) Lower Canada East 3) The Rebellions Upper Canada Economic developments: wheat, 3 quarters of income of the farmers come from wheat and then timber. Wheat: it is influenced the colony Transportation developments: allows the economy to prosper, old pathways were used, after the arrival of the Europeans, they created roads for military purpose, but later economic purposes. This was in the 19th ce, big routes that were complex such as Rideau canal: gets solders or economic goods from one place to another, upper Canada’s first mega project, paid by the b crown/government. Its expensive and took a huge time ot build. Primary objective move troops and economic developments, other canals were finiicaded by banks, 1918 – “bank of upper Canada” – to accumulate capital, gives to ppl who are worthy and let them invest and contribute to society, banks have a lot of power and money to shape economy. They can look good or bad, depends on economic circumstances Upper Canadian political culture - To belong to a party- seen as a negative, 2 groups emerge 1) conservatives or tories, group of ppl known as the family compact, friends or relatives that are highly influential in early 19th c upper Canada, they share a common world view, the person who holds the group together is known as john Strachan: religious leader, belongs to the church of England or Anglicans, educator, politician. 3 factors that keep them tight 1) Political: suspicious of democracy, masses were asses; they want to maintain political power in the hands of colonial governor and his appointed advisors. 2) Economic: they are interested in promoting economic developments of upper Canada, there version is how to control the economic development, banking and infrastructure projects are important investments, they believe its good for the economy but also them. welland cananal 3) Religion: all members, member of the church of England, one group within protestant Christianity, member of the colonial elite, land owners, the con. Act. Called for 1/7th of crown lands, public controlled lands to be set aside for the purpose of protestant clergy reserve – to build churches, schools, or sell it and keep the money the act of vague about what it means to be clergy – issues, who should have access to these lands, church of England – say the land should only be there’s. the guy says. The Church of England is the established church, gets money from the state. Second group: Reformers: political act, the way things are should be fixed, someone who believes society should be changed and questions the head. They have a radical outlook of the world 1) political: support democratization: means if torries want to keep power down here, they want a shift of power from appointment to elective 2) Economics: they are interested, in small scale and lost costly ideas – example public education, government funded school, for young ppl, infrastructure as well, road construction, better roads. 3) Religious: they come from modest backgrounds come from other protestant sects- against the will of god, focus on harmony and peace. KEY WORD: the Methodist- are evil-genicals – emotional charged expression of Christianity – heart over the head 1 characteristics- camp meetings, they put on a show and ppl camp out for days. Wild spirit, they believe there is divine sources that work on their souls. Ppl rolling on the ground, they are disorderly - Responsible government Willia, lyon Mackenzie: Scottish immigrant, journalist, creates a newspaper (Important) the colonial advocate, first mayor of city of Toronto. He is hot tempered, wants to act and lash out, objects to the principles of the family compact, hates how they run the colony – moves towards radicalism: means he is advocating violence revolutionary change. Versus. rivalry emerges Robert Baldwin – moderate, responsible government: you make the executive accountable to the assembly, means – the members of this group must be elected from this body, executive council This gap: would widen, 1830’s unfolds. LOWER CANADA Economic Deve -banking, railroads, timber – banks are being created to invest in projects and shipping – getting products to other places – increasing Montreal growth, English speaking ppl are the most wealthy, Decapitation thesis: head off the shoulders, metaphor, the British overthrown the France in the 7 year war, many of the elites in French elite societies – business community, milisitty they leave. The head leaves and what’s left is the original tenant farmers. English speaking ppl replace them. - the productivity is concreted in the urban centres such as Montreal in the 1830’s Urban life Disparities of wealth – some ppl are rich and lots of quite poor, shows them equality , most working class ppl in lower Canada are unskilled, the average worker in mtl – more than half of his income on food. The poor money you spend on basic necessities – closer to poverty – lots of women work, 1825 – quarter of women in mtl worked in wage labour inside or outside the home – sewing or laundry we see the emergence of separate sphere of relationships between men and women – men public sphere, women to the private sphere – outside vs inside. Middle class mentality – ideal than a reality, 1832- outbreak of cholera – involves dehydration and a painful death, caused by drinking contaminated water – English speaking businessman getting rich and also other ppl poor Rural life Declining agricultural productivity – farms are less productive – reasons 1) Early 19th c – the farms had been exploited for 200 years, 1608 founded plus 200 yrs, the soil is depleted 2) agricultural conservatism - crop rotation – plot of land, 1/3 wheat, 1/3 potato and other third leave it fallow, allow it to breathe, nutrients reproduce, and keep rotate, ppl didn’t do this, they used all their land and further to depletion 3) burdens – individual farmers who are tense, in the s system – one landlord control land and ppl who work on the land but don’t own it, the workers have to pay a rent to their landlord, tithe – share of yearly income to the church, these burdens on the lower class individuals made it harder - increasing resentment, large extent, its towards the ppl who are doing well, landlords – “neurs” The key theme is dissatisfaction Political tension - The division – is basically the same – the conservative “chateau clique” vs the reformers – they are drawn from the small French Canadian influential l middle class –ppl who have high lvl of education and are in law or journalism – very critical - Key leader of the reform movement: Louis joseph papineu – is a landlord, he’s connected to the parti canadien-> parti patriote after 1826 - ISSUE : Farmers are pissed, middle class reforms are concerned on the lack of democracy politically Political Rivalry 92 resolutions 1843 – the patriote – created the 92 r’s – it’s a list of their grievances – they want more ppl power French speaking and the response are the 19 Russell resolutions – no no no no and no, the British did not want to grant their democracy and let the English ppl be politically and economically dominate This resulted to the move or radical revolution – its not just elite involved in this discussion, ordinary men and women are also involved. Women are stripped from the right to vote 1834- women are still involved, they write and create petitions to empress their dissatisfaction, French radicals – they advocate a boycott on goods, stop buying English speaking merchants but create our own clothes, clashes in the streets in mtl – the c’s vs r’s – the doric club – involved in street fights vs sons of liberty – (comes from the American rev) This sets the stage for the lower Canadian rebellion – stage set for the upper as well –both colonies find themselves at the door step of violence conflict Lower Canadian rebellion John Colborne – chief of the British military – his job to put them down rebellious activities Battles – the p’s win the victory - 1) St. Denis 2) St. Charles – both the British regime fighting against the radical uprising, the b’s win. 3) St. Eustache – same as abov Leaders fled, but get together and launch cross broader attacks and the in 1838 they are put down and lose again. Jc sends out men and destroys the home of ppl who supported violence, “satan” – the lower Canadian constitution is suspended. Marshall law – military rules and does what it wants. Over 100 p’d die Upper Canadian rebellion (torries vs. reformers) Factors a) sharp economic down term, it happens in the us as well, the banks get nervous and is hard to access credit, they are afraid ppl won’t pay back loans, the re-call loans. The torries are not responsible for this, many upper Canadian radical who didn’t like banks, intensifies. b) the out break of the lower Canadian rebellion, the time is now the British soldiers are gone and the stage is set for the upper Canadian rebellion decem 1837 – get together at Montgomerys tavern, they drink and prepare for an assault of the colonial capital – it’s getting dark, 500 men, they are ill prepared – they were badly organized, they are pissed off colonist not pro’s they confront a group of government supports. First row of radical rev’s discharge their weapon, go down and reload to shoot again, its dark and the second row panic and dip, they get surrounded and defeated – first phase of the upper reb are put down. Mackensize creates an informal government named Navy island and created the declaration of indecency, second phase, cross broader attacks from us to Canada, small number of deaths, the radicals are defeated vs similar to lower Canada – 1000 ppl are gone to jail , 2 hanged publicly Important 1) they are evidence of great tension in both colonies - major frustration 2) lord durham is charged for figuring out why did it happen and how they can be prevented, his recommendation are important for the historical dev of upper and lower Canada. Confederation 1: The unlikely achievement of British North American Union (THEMES) 1. Mid 19th century social developments: Religion and emergence black community in south west 2. Roads to confederation – these are party’s 3. Responses to confederation – reactions to these proposal 4. Realizing confederation – circumstances for the achievements of a British union Theme 1 Emergence of a protestant culture - Was the clergy reserves – key term – creates upper and lower Canada, lucrative - People wanted to monopoly these reserves - Anglican/Methodists – should have state assistance – they wanted to control these reserves, Methodist rejected this idea, seen it was favoritism – - 1854- they are secularized, taken away from churches focuses towards education, it allows for the protestant culture – It gels, around a series of issues – brings together several different protestant community’s – evangelicals - 4 key issues (gels) 1) temperance – anti-alcohol movement (think clearly is good) 2) sabbath observant– statuary – day of rest, they want a day of rest on the Sunday; they criticize business that operate on sat. 3) slavery – exist in new france – abs and blacks, its eliminated in upper Canada, 1833 slavery is abolished across the British empire, years as follow – slavery would intensify ex) fugitive slave at 1850 – slave owners (Georgia) can cross stateliness capture the slave and bring him or her back with you, the size of British north America of blacks would increase, 40,000 in 60’s came from various parts in the states into Canada west, through the underground railroad – network of free blacks, white abolishment attempting them to escape – give them directions – mary ann shadd- helped bring 10s and thousands of blacks, born in America, free person, highly educated, moves to Canada
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