Final Exam Key Terms

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Natalie Rothman

1HISC65 Key Terms for Final Exam Lecture 7 1 Catholic ReformationThe CounterReformation also the Catholic Revival1 or Catholic Reformation was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent 15431565 and ending at the close of the Thirty Years War 1648 as a response to the Protestant Reformation The CounterReformation was a comprehensive effort composed of four major elements 1 Ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration 2 Religious orders 3 Spiritual movements 4 Political dimensionsSuch reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the Church the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritual foundations and new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ including the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality It also involved political activities that included the Roman Inquisition 2 Council of Trent 154563Council meted to define the principles of the church for years to comeinternal reform effort to reform the church in response to critics Acknowledged some critics and denied others Issues importance of the parish as the smallest unit of the church hierarchy 1 Parishespreviously neglected but became a focal point of the church after the Council of Trents reformsInstituted a book of matrimony and a book of baptismResponsible for stato delle anime 16thcentury Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church It is considered to be one of the Churchs most important councils It convened in Trent then capital of the PrinceBishopric of Trent in the Holy Roman Empire now in modern Italy between December 13 1545 and December 4 1563 in twentyfive sessions for three periodsThe council issued condemnations on what it defined as Protestant heresies and defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition Original Sin Justification Sacraments the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints It issued numerous 2reform decrees By specifying Catholic doctrine on salvation the sacraments and the Biblical canon the Council was answering Protestant disputesThe Council of Trent delayed and interrupted several times because of political or religious disagreements was a major reform council and the most impressive embodiment of the ideals of the CounterReformation 3 Tertiaries Third OrderThe term Third Order designates persons who live according to the Third Rule of a Roman Catholic religious order an Anglican religious order or a Lutheran religious order Their members known as Tertiaries are generally lay members of religious orders ie men and women who do not necessarily live in a religious community and yet can claim to wear thehabit and participate in the good works of some great orderA Secular Order also called a Third Order Secular is defined according to Canon Law 1983 of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in the following way 1 Associations whose members share in the spirit of some religious institute while in secular life lead an apostolic life and strive for Christian perfection under the higher direction of the same institute are called third orders or some other appropriate name Can 303 Code of Canon Law of the Roman Catholic ChurchMembers of these orders are called Tertiaries Latin tertiarii from tertius third The old monastic orders had attached to their abbeys confraternities of lay men and women going back in some cases to the 8th century The Confraternity Book of Durham is extant and embraces some 20000 names in the course of eight centuries Emperors and kings and the most illustrious men in church and state were commonly confraters of one or other of the great Benedictine abbeys The confraters and consorors were made partakers in all the religious exercises and other good works of the community to which they were affiliated and they were expected in return to protect and forward its interests but they were not called upon to follow any special rule of life 4 Scuole grandi Great confraternitiesThe Scuole Grandi literally Great Schools plural of Scuola Grandi were confraternity or sodality institutions in Venice Italy They were founded as early as the 13th century as charitable and religious organizations for the laityUnlike the trade guilds or the numerous scuola piccola they included persons from many occupations and ethnicities although citizenship was required Unlike the rigidly aristocratic Venetian governmental Grand Council which for centuries only admitted a restricted number of noble families membership in the Scuole was open to all citizens and did not permit nobles to gain director roles Citizens could include persons in the third generation of residency in the island republic or persons who had paid taxes in Venice for fifteen years
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