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HLTB21H3 (100)
Final

Summary of Diseases- VERY USEFUL for EXAM


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Study Guide
Final

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DiseaseHistoryTransmission Symptoms Treatment
INFLUENZA
- also known as flu grip, and
grippe is a disease of humans,
pigs, horses, and several other
mammals and wild birds
- no specific cure that is
effective against this viral
disease
- influenza pneumonia is rare
but fatal
- generally benign
- researchers have recreated
the flu virus responsible for
the 1918 pandemic to help to
understand better threat of
future bird flu
-
- H5N1 strain has been
detected in Turkey, Romania,
and Greece
- The virus has killed over 60
people in Asia since 2003 and
the slaughter of many birds
- incubation period: 1 to 5
days upon infection
- Hippocrates -
record of an influenza
pandemic in the year
412 B.C.
- Since 1580, there
have been thirty-one
additional flu
pandemics recorded.
- Asiatic (Russian)
Flu: (1888 – 1890)
1 million death
Spanish Flu (1918 –
1919):
- Killed 50 to 100
million people
worldwide in less
than 2 years.
- 1/3 world
population infected
- 40-60 million
deaths (estimated)
Case fatality 2.5%
- Significant illness in
younger population
- In the 18th century
Italians blamed it on
the influence of
heavenly bodies and
called it influenza
- Asian Flu (1957-
1958) – 1 – 1.5
million deaths
- Richard Shope
discovered the
etiological cause of
influenza in pigs
(1931)
- Thomas Francis
J.develops a killed-
virus vaccine for
influenza
Acute respiratory disease caused by the
influenza virus
Occurs globally, year-round
The virus changes every season
(antigenic drift)
- There are 3 sub-types of seasonal
influenza viruses which commonly
cause illness:
- Influenza A H3N2 strain
- Influenza A H1N1 strain
- Influenza B Yamataga OR Victoria
strains
- Causative agents of influenza are 3
myxoviruses, the influenza viruses A,
B, and C
- B and C viruses are associated with
sporadic epidemicas among children
and young
- A virus is the cause of most cases
during and between pandemics
Respiratory Droplets - contain the virus
and are expelled into the air by
coughing, sneezing or talking and enter
the body through a person’s mucous
membranes (e.g., nose, mouth).
Direct Contact – the virus spreads from
person-to-person from the hands of an
infected person. A person touches their
mucous membranes with their
contaminated hands.
Indirect Contact - The virus spreads
from one person to another by touching
surfaces or objects (fomites)
contaminated with the virus. A person
touches their mucous membranes with
their contaminated hands.
- Fever, chills,
headache, weakness
and fatigue as well as
coughing, sneezing,
runny nose (coryza)
- Residual cough and
tiredness lasts up to 6
weeks
- Complications can
include ear infections,
pneumonia,
dehydration and death
- bronchitis, sinusitis,
and bacterial
pneumonia are among
the more common
complications and can
be fatal
- bed rest
- drinking plenty
of liquids
especially water
- acetaminophen
(Tylenol)
- changing nature
of influenza has
defeated all
efforts thus far to
make a vaccine
against the
disease that will
be effective
- Vaccination
side effects:
- Redness,
soreness,
swelling at the
injection site
- Sometimes
fever, fatigue,
mild aches
- Some have
experienced
oculorespiratory
syndrome (ORS)
If you
experienced
ORS, discuss
immunization
with your doctor
In rare instances
(1:1000000) the
influenza vaccine
has been
associated with
Guillain-Barre
Syndrome (GBS)
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DiseaseHistoryTransmission Forms of
Disease
Symptoms
SMALLPOX; Red
death; speckled monster
(Variola or Variola vera)
- only exists in labs
- no longer an active
infection, acute
- incubation period is 7 -
14 days; during that time
you feel normal
- then the illness hits with a
spike of fever, a backache,
vomiting, and tiny bits of
red spots all over the back
appear
- spots turn into blisters
called pustules and the
pustules enlarge filled with
pressurized opalescent pus
- eruption of the pustules
sometimes called the
splitting of the dermis
- pain of the splitting can
make people lose the ability
to speak and their eyes can
squeeze shut with pustules
- death comes with a
breathing arrest or a heart
attack or a shock or an
immune system storm, it is
not known exactly how
smallpox kills
- 2 outcomes: death or long-
lasting immunity
- disease is now eradicated
after a successful worldwide
vaccination program
- killed more people than
another disease
- used for bioterrorism 
viruses, chemical to kill
populations; both are
aireborn, person to person
transfer
- cowpox, camelpox:
transferable to humans
- monkeypox: affects lymph
nodes
- Donald A. Henderson
director of the WHOs
- Pharoah Ramases V who had rashes on
his face, neck, and shoulders which
resemble smallpox
- Abraham Lincoln had mild smallpox
- Baghdad Physican Rhazes distinguishes
between measles and smallpox and said it
was a common childhood disease in
southwest Asia;The Treatise on Smallpox
and Measles”
- 18th-century-60 million Europeans were
estimated to be killed by the smallpox virus,
including five reigning European monarchs.
- Up to 30% of those infected, including
80% of the children under 5 years of age,
died from the disease.
- 1/3 of the survivors became blind.
- 18th century smallpox accounted for 10-
15% of all deaths in
- Smallpox outbreak in 1885 affected poor
people
- In late 18th century Edward Jenner
noticed that people who fell victim to
cowpox were not affected by the variolation
of smallpox
-On Dec. 1, 1796, Dr. John Clinch, a
medical missionary at Trinity, in
Newfoundland, forwarded a letter to Dr.
Edward Jenner in Gloucestershire
requesting information about using cowpox
pustule matter as a vaccination against
smallpox. Dr. Edward Jenner had begun
vaccinating his subjects only 6 months
earlier and by June 1800, when Dr. Edward
Jenner's published "An Inquiry into the
Causes and Effects of the Variolae
Vaccinae", describing his vaccination
experiments on 23 subjects, Dr. John
Clinch had already begun vaccinating
people in Newfoundland for over a year.
- 1749- Berkely, Gloucestershire, England
- last case of smallpox in the United States
was in 1949
- 1979 the Global commission of
certification officinally announced the
demise of the disease after a 12 year
effort by a team of doctors and health
workers in the WHO.
- Cotton Mather: first in the West to
- caused by the
virus variola
- airborne droplets
- entering body
through upper
respiratory tract
- transmitted
through the
clothing and
bedding of
smallpox patients
- person with
smallpox is
sometimes
contagious when
they get a fever,
but the person
becomes most
contagious when
they get a rash.
- The infected
person is
contagious until
their last scab falls
off.
Last Case: 1949
in US
- if you had
smallpox once
cannot get it again
- Variola Major
mortality rate of
25 – 30%
- Variola Minor
death rate of 1%
or less
Onset Symptoms:
high fever,
headache, pain in
the back and
muscles
- experience rash
onset 2 – 5 days
later
- Severest
Infection: extreme
toxemia and
massive
hemorrhage in the
skin
- rash appears on
palms, face, and
soles of trunk
- another few days
pimples of rash
turned into pustules
- drying of the
pustules started on
the 8th or 9th day of
the first eruption
- scabs fell off
3 – 4 weeks later
- victim could have
complications such
as blindness, and
male fertiliity
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Smallpox Eradication Unit
is credited with the
eradication of smallpox
conduct large scale of test of variolation in
Boston when a smallpox epidemic
continually hit the region
DiseaseTrasmission Symptoms HistoryDiagnosis/Treatment
MEASLES ( rubealo, hard
measeles, and red measles,
and 9-day measles)
- acute viral infectious disease
- first exanthem (Skin
eruption as symptom of an
acute disease, usually viral )
described historically
- typically viral disease of
children under 2
- coughing, kissing, sharing
cutlery, and sneezing
- caused by a virus in the genus
Morbillivirus of family
Paramyxoviridae
- virus does not survive in dry
surfaces but it can survive drying
in micro-droplets in the air
- initially infects the respiratory
epithelium and is transmitted via
- characterized by
fever and typical
red, blotchy rash
- conjunctivitis,
cough, and coryza
-other
complications may
occur with
measles: middle
ear infections,
- origin is unknown
- first isolated in
1954 by Enders
and Peebles, and
the first live-
attenuated vaccine,
the Edmonston B
strain, became
available in the
mid-to-late 1960s. -
- bed rest, carpool, drink
plenty of fluids
- The CDC defines a case of
measles as one that is
confirmed by (1) serologic
laboratory tests, such as
enzyme immunoassays for
measles IgM antibodies; (2)
cases epidemiologically
linked to a laboratory
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