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HLTB21H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Gin Craze, Germ Theory Of Disease, Moral Panic

Health Studies
Course Code
Suzanne Sicchia
Study Guide

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Weeks 1+2:
Critical thinking: self-directed thinking which exemplifies the perfections of
thinking appropriate to a particular mode or domain of thinking.
Definitions of health –
oWHO defines health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social
well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
oColin Johnson states ‘the concept of health is a cluster of sub-concepts,
which together constitute a dynamic whole’
oHealth as a state or status
oHealth as a commodity (can be bought)
oHealth as the absence of disease
oHealth as a norm
Theoretical perspectives
oMedical model – if medical defined illness and disorder are absent then
health is assumed to be present
draws on scientific, mechanical, individualistic and
reductionist understandings of what health is and views
health in terms of pathology, disease, diagnosis and
superior than the social model
Physical body is viewed as being separate from social or
psychological processes
Health is seen as being ‘located’ in the individual body and
the causes of ill-health are viewed as being biological or
physiological in origin

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Wider context is given little attention and therefore the
numerous social, psychological and environmental factors
that influence or determine health are not considered
Absence of disease or abnormality can be seen as negative
Concerned with IATROGENESIS (Ivan Illych) (-):
oMedicine robs us of our potential to cope, resilience
oOften causes unintended harm
Growing interest in SALUTOGENESIS (Aaron Antonovsky)
oNeed to focus on what facilitates health, not just
causes disease
oEmphasis on relationship between health, stress, and
oDecontextualizing : ignored significance of cultural and
other contextual factors
oReductionism over-simplification of biological
oModern medicine now recognizes that the body is not
a machine, but more than the sum of its parts, it is
often treated as a machine
oBiomedicine and medical science are NOT value-free
because they’re embedded in a larger society
oSocial model – views health as being influenced by a range of different
factors, including those that are political, economic, social, psychological,
cultural and environment(and biological)
Believes that the causes of ill-health are attributed to factors
outside the physical body – the wider structural causes such
as poverty and inequality, social interaction and behaviour
Operates from the view that a wide variety of concepts need
to be taken into account when conceptualizing health

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oFactors such as the environment, influences on
lifestyle choices, access to health care services,
employment status and gender identities,
Links health with development (personal and societal)
Has a more holistic definition of health taking wider ranges of
factors into account
oSuch as mental and social dimensions of health
Too broad
Used as a set of underlying values (philosophical approach
to health)
oAs a set of guiding principles to orientate health work
in a specific way
oAs a set of practice objectives
oHolistic model – takes into account the mind, body and spirit
Considers the interaction between biological, psychological and
social factors
Views the person as a ‘whole’ rather than a sum of their
Difference between the social model and holistic is that the
holistic approach tends to focus on the individual rather than
social structures that influence the individual
Underpins many alternative approaches to health
oTakes spiritual health into consideration
Health is more individualistic and does not take wider social
factors into account
oBio-psychosocial – combines the biomedical, psychological and social
aspects of health and accounts for the interaction between these
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