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Snail Fever- detailed study guide

2 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Disease History Transmission/BacteriaSymptomsTreatment/Prevention/Diag
Pharaohs Plague
(Snail Fever,
Schistosomiasis, etc)
-Remedies for this
disease described in
Ebers papyrus,
suggesting this disease
was widespread
- In tomb reliefs, there
were images of
with enlarged abdomens
(snail fever or blood fluke
-Centuries of drought
killed snails therefore
city is free of disease
-This disease existed in
tropical and subtropical
parts of world, and Egypt
since ancient times
-Frequent irrigation of
asgricultural land
created conditions for
blood fluke to transmit
snail fever
-Estimated 200 million
ppl today infected = more
than 1 mil deaths
-50 mil in Africa
-Highest incidence in
-Marc Armand (1910)
found calcified eggs of the
blood fluke in kidneys of
-Fossil snails found in
well water of Jericho
(this allowed them to be
defeated by Joshuas
-Theodore Bilharz
(German doctor in Egypt-
1851) found worms in
blood vessel- connected
blood to worm
-now called
schistosomiasis or
bilharzia (or soldiers call
it Bill Harris)
-confirmed by John
Harley (1863)
-Spencer Cobbold
(1870)- Found eggs
hatched in fresh or
brackish water but not
-1904- discovery of
Japonicum (could infect
humans) but did not have
a spine
-Patrick Manson
(1905)- schistosome egg
-Parasite- eggs, miracidia,
and cercariae (microscopic)
-Transmitted by feces, urine,
water, snails, or flatworm
-miracidia able to penetrate
freshwater snails found
in larva able to penetrate
tails of mice mice infected
with S. Japonicum
-snail vector is critical to
-cannot be transmitted
through ingestion because
killed by stomach acid
-S. Mansoni- stayed in liver
and laid eggs
-S Haematobium- leaves
liver for veins surrounding
-Life cycle: eggs release
larva (miracidium) 
penetrate snail in foot 
migrate to liver and change
form parasites reproduce
snail sheds cercariae
that can penetrate human
skin 5-8wks dvp into
adult worms
-Both male and female have
2 suckers for mouths
-Freshwater pools to work,
bathe, drink, etc can get
-eggs accumulate in organs
blocking blood flow, causing
tissue death
-liver becomes filled with
scar tissue
-blood in urine (hematuria)
-1-2mths: fever, chills,
vomiting, headache, cough
-6-12mths: organ
enlargement (liver and
-Symptoms depends of # of
worms present
-Examining stools and urine
under light microscope to find
-Prevention: education,
treatment, control of snail
vector using molluscidies,
provide safe water supply
-Treatment: (1919) IV
administration of antimony
compound and (1929)
injections of another
compound, but both were toxic
-1970- Biltricide- low toxicity
-no preventative vaccine for
this disease
-Dr. C. Barlow: volunteered
for chemo trial and exposed
himself to 224 cercariae

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Disease History TransmissionBacteria Symptoms TreatmentPreventionDiag nosis Pharaohs Plague - Marc Armand (1910) - Parasite- eggs, miracidia, - eggs accumulate in organs - Examining stools and urine (Snail Fever, found calcified eggs of the and cercariae (microscopic) blocking blood flow, causing under light microscope to find -Transmitted by feces, urine, tissue death eggs Schistosomiasis, etc) blood fluke in kidneys of - Remedies for this mummies water, snails, or flatworm - liver becomes filled with - Prevention: education, disease described in - Fossil snails found in -miracidia able to penetrate scar tissue treatment, control of snail Ebers papyrus, well water of Jericho freshwater snails found - blood in urine (hematuria) vector using molluscidies, - 1-2mths: fever, chills, provide safe water supply suggesting this disease (this allowed them to be in larva able to penetrate was widespread defeated by Joshuas tails of mice mice infected vomiting, headache, cough - Treatment: (1919) IV - In tomb reliefs, there Army) with S. Japonicum - 6-12mths: organ administration of antimony were images of - Theodore Bilharz enlargement (liver and compound and (1929) -snail vector is critical to spleen) injections of another fishermanbargemen (German doctor in Egypt- transmission with enlarged abdomens 1851) found worms in -cannot be transmitted - Symptoms depends of # of compound, but both were toxic (snail fever or blood fluke blood vessel- connected through ingestion because worms present
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