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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Iva Zovkic

HLTB15 WINTER 2013 Midterm Review – Key Terms Lecture # 4: Social Factors, Health and Illness  Social Class: arrangements of people in society as economic groups, hierarchical  Socio-economic status (SES): societal status using factors or measurements such as income levels, educational attainment, no hierarchy, not classifying based on broad economic groups  Social causation hypothesis: factors associated with socioeconomic status influence health, people that have more money or better occupation have better health status  Selection hypothesis: life course perspective; pathway of a persons life course, people from lower SES children, less opportunities, may in the long term lead to different occupations which may lead to future health issues  Crisis theory: homeostasis and equilibrium  Cognitive-Appraisal model of coping: how an individual copes is determined by his or her appraisal, resources and support   Social support: Availability of someone who offers comfort; Emphasize satisfaction with available support; Encompassed within broader concept of social capital  Social capital: community of reciprocal social support networks and resources and is embodied in measures of social networks, social support and the availability of community resources  Self-efficacy: Belief in one’s ability to successful complete a task or doing something  Social Stigma: social reaction leads to a SPOILT identity and LABELLING  Difference between social interactionism vs. symbolic interactionism  Sick Role carries two rights and obligations for the sick person o Exemption from normal social roles and responsibilities o No blame for failure to fulfill them o Individual must want to return to normal roles o Must cooperate with health professionals with the aim of recovery  Illness Behavior: what a person does when sick – seek medications or consultations HLTB15 WINTER 2013  Health Behavior: behavior to promote or prevent sickness  Gender Theory: women have higher rates of morbidity and medical consultations but men have more mortality, have higher rates of mental illness  Cultural theory: Americans are more invasive, French have more holistic treatments, and preoccupation with the liver, Germans have a preoccupation with circulation and even treat lower blood pressure  Cost Benefit approach: social factors impact the amount of time and resources available to seek help and alter behavior  Health Belief Model: people’s behavior related to: o Perception of how severe their illness is  Individual’s belief about the seriousness or severity of a disease  Based on medical information or knowledge or beliefs a person has o How susceptible the
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