HLTA01 First Midterm Lecture Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA01 First MidtermLecture 1 Virusultimate microparasitesmaller than bacteria neither cells nor organisms can only reproduce within their host Fragment of genetic material wrapped inside a protein Not a living being You could only see virus if you use an electron microscope that sees 10 000 to see a virus Much smaller than bacteria not cells not organisms They could only reproduce inside its host because they cannot fulfill all the requirements on their ownMacroParasites does not only need the host to reproduce but could multiple in the outside environment but need host to perform their transmission stages Host to lay eggs or grow to a certain level Pass sometimes to external environment then back into a host Roundworms ticks and could be seen with the naked eyeTransmissionmovement of a parasite from host to host and can occur through contamination of needles utensils handkerchiefs air water Incubation period interval of time required for development of a disease Long incubation period takes long time for disease to develop Incubation the pathogen is prepared to replicate reproduce and eventually form or cause disease on the host There is some activity occurring and causing harm and eventually you will see harm or the disease When will symptoms show Infectious disease with short incubationviruses is doing what its supposed to be doing like replicating reproducing then causing harm to the hostLatent period seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness that period waiting between exposure and disease we cannot see what parasites is doing they arent replicating or reproducingdoing nothing but it will occur in an eventual time later on Syphilis has a latency exposure Whatever harm and exposure went dormant and then something occurs where it manifests itselfParasite virulence ability to produce disease its strong and cause a lot of harm How strong it is to produce disease Like SARS where it was very high in virulence whereas flu has low virulence Zoonotic infections its source is animal and can impact humans Started with animal and pass onto humansMeasles as a virus you are exposed to it but disease does not occur HIV they dont get AIDS right as way AIDS is a disease and HIV is an infection and is more latent periodDisease is a state where a persons health will not function normally or can cause death but it definitely has an impactEpidemiological triangletriad distribution and causes of diseases Has to have three components any of it is missing then disease will not occur host agent and environment Host in which harm can be made some kind of agent can be a variety of things and have an environment that promotes the exposure of the agent 1 Host level many factors that impact the host Susceptibilityimmunity to disease matters genetics matters what they eat matters Host related factor we all can be exposed to the flu but not all of us will get the fluEnvironment to promote replication and reproduction To promote exposure like contaminated waterAgent fire is an agent that can prevent ill health Virulence can cause harm does it grow at a fast rate Is it persistent Is it a strong parasites Agent is biological physical chemical psychosocial rate of growth and persistence like a bacteriumHost is a person agent in the water bacterium environment is the contaminated waterDirect transmissionfrom person to person Measles short period of time direct contact but would not live in a long time in the air after breathing it Indirectthrough a common routevector eg contaminated airwater mosquito Water is a route of transmission indirect Malaria mosquitoes are vectors and are indirect contact Portal of entryDermalthrough the skin eg fungusIngestionthrough the mouth eg Ecoli in waterInhalationduring respiration eg particulate matterAspirationairway entry happens by accident a person should have taken breath in their lungs choking reflex where pathogens get in their stomach and causes harm It ends up going into gastrointestinal secretion and causes harmIceberg Concept that shows severity of diseases Subclinical disease exposure without infection exposed but there are no clinical symptoms wont develop infection or disease have some sort of immunity or luckAsymptomatic infection Infection without clinical illness Expose to agent may develop infections but not show sign of symptoms of disease Person can be a carrier but do not know it but easily able to spread it to others Incubating inside of them and canwill infect and spread to othersTyphoid Mary Clinical disease mildmoderate severity is more common and the tip of the iceberg is more classical and severe disease Tuberculosisinfectious disease that most commonly attacks the majority are in apparent where no symptoms occur some are mild some are moderate some are severe and some are fatal Measles common skin rash transmitted from respiration It is a respiratory disease some are in apparent period of incubation some are mild many are moderate some are severe some tend to be fatal Rabiesaffects central nervous system transmitted through saliva Dont have in apparent or mild region what so ever majority is fatal many or a few is severe When you look at public health initiative some are more promoted than others based on their severityOutbreaks the number of cases how many people have a specific disease frequency of how many people have it etc Endemic occurs in certain society and population at a normal rateforever and for always we will always have flu X percentage of population will have the flu Normal and reasonable range Epidemicoccurrence goes on beyond expectancyPandemicgoes across the globe like SARS H1N1 concerned because it was epidemic in many societies Worldwide epidemic 2
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