HLTA01 Study Chart.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Disease History/ Epidemiology Pathogen/Germ/Theory/Important Transmission Treatment/Prevention Public Health Measures People Stages/Clinical Manifestation Syphilis - In 1494 Spanish troops Theories: Transmission: - Mercury was used for early - Not eradicated due to – The were sent to France to attack 1. Columbian Theory = -Sexually transmitted treatment but was discovered to be people ignorance of Great King Charles VIII introduced to Europe from the disease = direct contact dangerous having safe sex, and Pox - It was thought that the Americas by Christopher with sorles, open lesions, - Penicillin was developed in 1943 by using condoms Other disease came from Naples Columbus and his crew utero, transfusion of blood Sir Alexander Fleming and this helps names: especially from their women  Evidence = written records - congenital syphilis = fights bacteria and prevent further Morbus - The French called it “the and the pattern of the spread of syphilis spread from development of syphilis ONLY Gallicus, disease of Naples” the disease mother to fetus Lues - The Italians called it “the 2. Pre-Columbian Theory = came Clinical Manifestation: Venera French Disease” from Africa -Primary Stage = - There were pamphlets that  Evidence = Unitarian appearance of single were written about syphilis (Trepony) vs. Non-unitarian chancre on lips, fingers, or during the epidemic and (series of mutation from way genital; incubation period = translated into different back) theory; Native Americans 2-6 weeks th languages to prevent the had syphilis since 16 century -Secondary stage = skin spread - It was believed that you get rash and mucus - Giovanni de Vigo wrote a syphilis from cursing God membrane lesions book on Syphilis Important People: (red/reddish brown) on - It was named Syphilis by John Hunter = founder of hands and sole of feet; Girolama Fracastoro who scientific surgery; we did self- leads to latent period of 2- named it after a Shepard who experimentation by variolation 50 years got syphilis from cursing God himself by taking wet venera from - Tertiary Stage = without gonorrhoea; eventually died from treatment can lead to heart disease (now known as internal organ damage tertiary syphilis) Philippe Ricord = showed thjat syphilis and gonorrhoea were different; determined the 3 stages of syphilis: primary, secondary, and tertiary; Rudoplh Vichow = established that it’s spread through blood and ruins other organs Shaudinn and Hoffman = discovered the agent of syphilis in 1905 Pathogen: -Agent = Treponema Pallidum (A fragile spirochete) -Only natural host = humans Disease History/Epidemiology Pathogen/Germ/Theory/Important Transmission Stages/Clinical Treatment/Prevention Public cause/Public People Manifestation Health Measures Measles - Thomas Sydenham was Prevailing Theory: Transmission: Treatment: Public Cause: Other the first to distinguish - The red rash represented the - Direct contact from nose - John Enders was successful in - Infectious in places names: between smallpox and mother’s period blood and throat secretions 1963 to develop a vaccine where it’s overcrowded Rubeola, measles in 1670 accumulated during pregnancy - Infectious 4 days before - Diagnosed based on infectious with lots of mountains, hard -Francis Homes showed and when the person for the until 4 days after rash spot and blood tests reveals the caused by boat measles, that measles are infectious disease it thought to get rid of thiappears/disappears virus movements from island red by transmitting infected “poisonous” blood - Very contagious - Supportive care: good hydration to island and the measles, blood from infected child to Pathogen: - Once you get it, you have and nutrion weather is moist morbilli, uninfected child - From the paramyxoviridae lifelong immunity - WHO recommends giving Vitamin hasbah -Peter Ludwig Panum was family - spread by breathing in A with the vaccination for measles Public Health the first to do an - Virus = mobillivirus virus contaminated air or - There were 2 vaccination created Measures: epidemiological study on - Attacks the respiratory system touching virus contaminated  Killed measles virus (KMV) – - WHO vaccination and measles by the Danish - Virus can survive in micro- surface discontinued in 1967 since not vitamin A government; he did the droplets in air - the virus grows in the effective - Quarantine study in Faeroe Isles which - no animal reservoir, only human throat and lungs and  Weakened (attenuated) virus was surrounded by host symptoms appear 10-12 mountains, heavy - becomes an epidemic in winter- days after population and moist spring climate due to its survival - once infected person has weather rate in most environments fever for 2-4 days with -Hektoen demonstrated in cough, runny nose and red 1910 that measles was watery eyes present in blood and this is Rash lasts 5-6 days how it moves through the - Virus can be transmitted 4 body days before and 4 days after Clinical Manifestation: - First stage = prodrome stage; fever with head cold, cough and conjunctivitis (coryza) - Second stage = enanthem stage (=late prodrome stage); Koplik’s spots (small white grainlike sports in the mucus membrane lining in the mouth; sore throat - Third stage = exanthem stage; 1-2 days later rashes appear everywhere with lesions; the colour changes from dark red to purplish to yellow-brown lesions within 5-10 days Disease History/Epdemiology Pathogen/Germ/Theory/Important Transmission/Clinical Treatment/Prevention Public cause/health People Manifestation measures Smallpox - Arrived with cortes and his Pathogen: Transmission: Early Treatment/Prevention: Public Cause: Spanish troops when set out - Virus = Orthopoxvirus from the - Infectious a day before - Prayers and Quack remedies - Unhygienic to claim Mexico from King family Poxviridae the rash and until all the - Thought eating and drinking red environment Charles V - Has two types differed by the scabs have fallen off things, and wearing red led to the - Crowding - Old world disease genes - Enters the body through cure of the disease - Untreated waste water - Earliest evidences are  Variola major = the most inhalation of the droplet - Variolation/Inoculation = the process - Urbanization Egyptian mummies (3): virulent type; was present in - Can also be spread of forcefully infecting someone to get - Industrialization Pharaoh Ramses V naïve population through contaminated immune to the disease - Plague of Antonine is  Variola Minor = less infectious; bedding, clothing, blankets  Chinese inhale the dried scab Public Health Measures suspected to be the first more common in Europe and dust  Near east and Africa take the - Sanitary maps epidemic of smallpox - Destroys all oil glands of the - Easier spread during pustule and rub it into the cut or a - Improvements in causing the fall of the roman skin leaving marks, even causes winter in temperate scratch in the skin paving roads, cleaner empire eyebrows to fall off climates and dry season in Treatment: streets, treating - Hearing it since 5 century - Other poxvirus that can infect the tropics - Edward Jenner developed the unclean water but became an epidemic in humans = monkeypox, cowpox, Clinical Manifestation: vaccine for smallpox th 12 century milker’s nodes, tanapox, and - First week of infection no - Now been eradicated declared by Canada: - Thought to have thought to chickenpox symptoms but can be WHO on May 8, 1980 - Irish falled sick in the the new world (16 century)  everything but monkeypox spread by coughing or - He illustrated that once you get the boat across the water through the intro of Spanish creates a mild disease nasal mucus cowpox, you’re immune to smallpox - Grosse Ile in Canada and Portuguese led to the - Then moves onto the are where the irish fall of Aztecs and Incas lymph nodes and then to were burried - The colonization of N. internal organs via blood America by the French and stream where the virus English made it easier to multiplies again and then spread this re-enters the bloodstream - Used as the first biological - Around the 9 day the war when it was deliberately symptoms are headache, used in the French/English- chills, fever, nausea, Indian war when infected muscle ache and then a blankets were sent to India rash appears so they’ll lose the war - Causes 1/3 of blindness - Incubation period = 12-14 days Cholera - Miasmists believed that Pathogen: Transmission: Treatment: th this was caused by bad - During the 5 pandemic Koch - indirect through the fecal- - In 1832 the rehydration therapy was vapour, didn’t consider the discovered the microbe of oral route proposed contagion theory; Max cholera = Vibrio Cholerae  if the feces ends up in - Antibiotic to shorten the course of Pettenkofer is one of them - V. Cholerae must be infected by the body of water and the disease and reduce the severity of - Contagionists believed in 2 viruses people either swim in it or the symptoms the germ theory and this  one has a gene that codes for drink it included Robert Koch and the cholera toxin - low stomach acidity = Louis Pastuer; the main  one has a gene that codes for highly susceptible to people for this idea is Koch the receptor that allows the toxin cholera and Hansen coding virus to enter the - seafood has the higher Epidemiology: bacterium chance of having the - there are 7 pandemics - V. Cholerae is found in aquatic bacteria sincst1816 environment Clinical Manifestation:  1 pandemic (1816-1821) Important People: - severe diarrhea originated in Indian in the - John Snow was known as father - vomiting Ganges Rivers and spread of modern epidemiology; traced - muscle cramps by tnd British troops the outbreak of in London to the - convulsions  2 pandemic (1829- pumps that supplied water and - death sometimes within 1851) reached Europe, through the “Grand Experiment” hours Canada, and the US; mostly discovered which pump in the northern hemisphere contaminated the water and  3 pandemic (1852- closed it down; he proved 1859) was when there were Pastuer and Koch’s contagion technological advances to theory 35 years later understand cholera and better public health measures th  4 thndemic 1863-73  5 pandemic 1881-69; hygienic measures stopped the spread to N. America and northern hemisphere  6 pandemic 1899-1923; missed the western hemisphere for the same reason as the 5 pandemic  7 pandemic 1961- ongoing Malaria - One of the oldest disease Important People: Transmission: Treatment: - Earliest records dates back - thveran studied malaria in the - caused by the bite of an - First drug = Peruvian tree – to 2700 to Chinese text 19 century female anopheles cinchona bark where quinine is - In the 4 century there is - Ronald Ross studied mosquitoe mosquito (= vector) that is derived evident of the endemic in and their stomach to figure out infected with genus - Treatment is dependent on species, Greece called the “Roman where the malaria was coming Plasmodium which is severity of infection, pattern of drug Fever” from but he studied the wrong developed in the mosquito resistance, accompanying illness, - Symptoms are mentioned mosquito; confirmed that malaria and migrate to the salivary pregnancy in English literature by is NOT transmitted by drinking gland - Problem with treatment is drug Shakespeare and Dante water with dead mosquitoes in - transmitted to humans resistance, cost of drugs Epidemiology: them through a bite Prevention: - Killed more than half the - Giovanni Battista Grassi studied - can be transmitted by - Mosquito nets, protective clothing, people whoever live on this the correct mosquito that carried transfusion of infected reduce contact during peak overs and planet human malaria cal
More Less

Related notes for HLTB21H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.