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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Parasites organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that doesnot contribute to the survival of its host Virus ultimate micro-parasite smaller than bacteria; neither cells not organisms; can only reproduce within their host Macro-parasites composed of many cells; cycles through transmission stages (eggs and larvae) which pass into the external environment Transmission - movement of a parasite from host to host Incubation period- interval of time required for development of a disease Latent period-seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness Parasite virulence-capacity of a parasite to cause disease Zoonotic infections - animal infections that can be transmitted to humans HOST Immunity,Genetics,Nutrition, AGENT- Biological, physical chemical, psychosocial, Rate of growth, persistence ENVIRONMENT- Promote exposure Modes of Disease Transmission- - Direct transmission - from person to person - Indirect through a common route vector, e.g. contaminated air water, mosquito Portal of entry: Dermal through the skin, e.g. fungus, Ingestion through the mouth, e.g. E.coli in water, Inhalation during respiration, e.g. particulate matter, Aspiration airway entry Three main types of outbreaks Endemic usual occurrence of a disease within a given geographical area, Epidemic occurrence of a disease in excessof normal expectancy, Pandemic worldwide epidemic Determinants of disease outbreaks: Herd immunity resistance of a group to an disease attack due to immunity, For measles estimate that 94% of the population must be immune , Incubation period, Attack rate ratio of the #people in whom a certain illness develops total #people at risk In the past, all disease outbreaks plagues plaga i.e. to strike a blow that wounds Epidemic (Greek origin) - epi among and demos the people Acceptable definition of plague: highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease. Plague is a serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted
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