Chapter 13: Toward Healthy Societies: From Ideas to Action
TheDisease Control” Conception o International Health: Its Successes and
oExample of failed technical fix: prior to use of DDT, window screens, piped water
and sewage discouraged malaria in the N. America and Europe. DDT had its
successes but led to mosquito resistance, and adverse health and environment effects
and malaria became worse than before
oSmallpox eradication made possible with the attack phase (mass vaccination while
disease is endemic), consolidation phase (vaccination of new arrivals) and maintenance phase.
§Criticisms - Though there were a lot of investments in vaccines not as
much was allocated for improvements in sanitation, housing and primary care
oUNICEF Child Survival Campaigns (1982) addressed through GOBI: growth
monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding and immunization for TB,
diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio and measles – expanded to include family
planning female education and food supplementation
§Criticisms – didnt address underlying determinants like reasons for poor
nutriotn, causes of diarhe
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