IDSB04 terms

International Development Studies
Course Code
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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Glossary of IDSB04 Terms [aka Concepts]:
x Governance vs. Government:
o Both refer to purposive behavior, to goal, to goal oriented activities, to
systems of rule
o Government: activities are backed by formal authority
o Governance: activities are backed by shared goalsno police power
“ actions and means adopted by a society to promote collective action and
deliver collective solutions in pursuit of common goals
x *IHR (International Health Regulation) 2005: legally binding a regulation which
was adopted by most countries to contain the threats from diseases that may rapidly
spread from one country to another.
x *Global Health governance: situated locally/nationally/regionally/internationally
may be Formal (international health regulation) or Informal (Hippocratic oath) and
they may be Public (ex: MoH) vs. Private (International Federation of
Pharmacuetical Manufacturers Associations) vs. Public-Private (Medicine for
Malaria Ventures)
x *Multilateral organizations: Activities on a near global level involving the
agreement or cooperation of a number of nations. The word is commonly used in
areas of international relations such as treaties, agreements and trading systems.
Funding provided by governments and NGOs, are distributed to many different
countries. Major ones are associated with UN.
x *10/90 Gap and the Global Forum for Health Research
x Global Fund for AIDS TB and Malaria: to increase global financing for AIDS,
Tuberculosis and Malaria, it provides two thirds of funding for Tuberculosis and
Malaria and contributes to up to 20% of all international HIV related funding.
x *Bilateral Agency: A government agency in a single country that provides aid to
developing countries. Largest Bil. Agency is the United States Agency for
International Development and the Canadian counterpart : Canadian International
Development Agency (CIDA)
x Nongovernmental organizations: aka PVOs (Private voluntary organizations)
o Gates Foundation: reduce inequities, largest charitable in the world
o Doctors without borders
x *Policy analysis: The process through which we identify and evaluate alternative
policies/programs that are intended to lesson or resolve a (health) issue

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x Policy Analysis vs. Research: Policy analysis is practical, flexible, addresses a
context specific problem and is focused on decision making. Research seekstruth”,
requires explicit steps and procedures, addresses broad questions and focus is on
x International Health: defined in terms of national borders
x Global Health: includes entire world. Health problems, issues and concerns that
transcend national boundaries, may be influenced by circumstances or experiences in
other countries, and are best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions.
x Globalization and Health: increases human interaction while reducing barriers of
time, space and ideas and increases link between foreign policy, health policy and
security. Forces that influence globalization are trade and investment, travel,
migration, technology, and communication.
x Social Determinants of Health:
Water and sanitation
Social exclusion and Discrimination
Poor Housing
Unhealthy early childhood condition
Low occupational status
x Determinants of health: Physical and biological environment, Human biology,
Healthcare, Social environment & Lifestyle
x Policy Analysis:
1. Define the problem
2. Establish evaluation criteria
a. Common evaluation criteria
i. Cost
ii. Net benefit
iii. Effectiveness
iv. Efficiency
v. Equity
vi. Administrative ease
vii. Legality
viii. Political acceptability
3. Doing Policy analysis
a. Identify all alternatives
b. Evaluate alternatives
c. Select optimal solution
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