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IDSB04 FINAL Review:
What is health?
Health is a state of compete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of
disease or infirmity.
What affects health?
The adequate housing, Access to clean water, sanitation, nutrition, education, broad of social
polices and protections, safe working condition and living wages.
Health and Health care:
The public health care is a concept constituted in the early 19th century and aims to improve health
with the organized effort by the government from the community effort, “collective health” was
adapted in brazil and somewhere else in the latin America which emphasize the role and agency of
ordinary people and social movements in shaping the outcome of health. Movement includes
public health, social medicine, population health, collective health.
International Health in historical perspective:
300 year long waves of Eurasian Plague, Imperialism(expedition exchange disease) and the slave
trade and their health consequencesRise of industrial Revolution of the 19th century and the
How can one conceptualize international healthWhat is international health?
1. Humanitarian/human right 2.Global public good. 3. Security 4. Protect and preserve market
5. International agreement 6. Disease control 7. business interest 8 economic development
9 Foreign policy 10. social justice.
Formed in the 20th century powerful countries recognize the value of intergovernmental
cooperation and established permanent bodies to address health issues that crossed national
borders. the formation of WHO was had been consolidate during the cold war.
Rockefeller Foundation’s International health legacy.
Financially supported education in the United States "without distinction of race, sex or creed
Established the first schools of public health
Developed the vaccine to prevent yellow fever
Funded the original development of the social sciences
Supported the establishment of a large range of American and international cultural institutions;
Funded agricultural development to expand food supplies around the world “Green Revolution”
Some principal historical international health imperatives.
Chairty, missionary work, War relief, diplomacy, Philanthropy, economic
development, Paternalism/Colonialism, sharing of expertise, transnational training and data
collection for disease.
Calls for reform and revolution: Chadwick, Engels, Virchow
Chadwick: Lawyer and civic servant of the poor law commission calls updating the welfare policy
dating from the Elizabeth time. Attention on the sanitary reform, clean water, sewage and public
Engels: Son of wealthy German manufacturer works for textile factories. Examine the living and
occupational environment for industrial workers, reform political action to protect working
Virchow: Father of pathology a German doctor understand how social and economic conditions
impact health, disease and the practice of medicine and foster conditions in which this
understanding can lead to a healthier society.
Why study health policy? What is policy? What is health policy?
To protect the health of individuals and ensure the right of society
Biomedical model views health at individual level
Behavioral model views health and illness as consequence of individual action and belief
Political Economy approach consider from political, social and economics factor that illness arise
Political nature of Health:
Wealthy is healthier
The political economy of health and development
Models for understanding health and disease.
Political economy of international health frameworl.
The political economy of health approach.
The political economy framework is based on the notion that political and economics factors are
intertwined with individual and social factors. As such business owner have power over workers,
property own have more power than tenets.
Key analytic questions for a political economy approach to social(Including international
health) inquirypg 143
Economic structure. Who owns and controls what
What does a country produce?
Wat does it buy and sell on the international market
Social structure: Who works in what sector?
What are the class/race/gender structures of ownship and lobor
Political structure: Who wields political power?
How is power distributed?
Using the political economy of health approach to understand health problems
Political economy approach seeks to understand no communicable and emerging health problems
at a globe, national and individual level.(pg 148)
Phases and “models” of development
What is development?
Depending on one’s perspective, progress, advancement, economic growth, productivity,
profitability, striving for equality, better health and education, democracy, commercialization,
improved quality of life, economic integration. Lower middle high class
Bretton woods conference established a new world economic order by some key actor World Bank,
IMF and GATT.
Development and the “Third” world
Modernization theory: Central to this process was the exchange of tradition cultures and values of
underdeveloped coutries for modern, technological and market values.five stage of eco growth and
Dependency theory: theories predicated on the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of
poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of
the former. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and
rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the "world system"
World system theory: Assumes a capitalist world economy as the basic unit of analysis for
modern social change, rejects third world or underdeveloped only one world connected by various
Critique of development theories from a health perspective
Underdevelopment of health in poorer countries is not due to scarcity of value, capital or
technology from developed countries but rather from their excessive or inappropriate application
relative to local needs.
Financial, Oil and debt crises and the breakdown of the postwar development model 1970s to
U.S president abandoned the fixed rate exchange system due to destroying the competitiveness of
U.S. industry. Under developed world suffer severely from the Bretton woods break down
The Organization of Arab Petroleum Countries decided to cut oil supplies for countries support
Israel in the Yom Kippur war.
The OPECOrganization of Petroleum Exporting Countriesseized the events and raised the price
of crude oil regardless of the global inflation, quadrupling the price of oil led to a large stock
market decline and boom of other goods price. Some countries developing have more capital and
other industrialized experiencing the begging of recession.
Countries need revenue to cover high cost of oil, after the Iranian revolution and the Iran-Iraq war,
there are increase in interest after large scale borrowing from countries to make up the gap
Debt crises: lost decade to many third world countries, due to irresponsible borrowing and lending
which triggered huge recession
Neoliberalism mid 1980s to present
Belief in the stability of economy free market
Liberalization and expansion of the market, monetary measure to control inflation(even if
Reduce public spending and privatization of social services.
Privatization of Industry: Tax cut and government downsizing
Strict controls on organized labor