IDSB04 Lecture 2

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International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

IDSB04Lecture 2The Political Economy of Health and DevelopmentWhat are the underlying causes of health and illnessHow do the main models of understanding health and disease address there factorspg 132Biomedical Modelpg 133oViews health and illness at the individual leveloBody conceptualized as a machine with constituent parts ie organ systems genes etc that can manipulated or repairedoHealth is understood primarily in terms of the absence of disease rather than as an integrated sense of wellbeingoLargely curative and considers the role of behavioral determinants of health in terms of risk factorspersonal characteristics related to heredity and lifestyle that are believed to predispose individuals to diseaseoAppeal stems from dramatic technological advances in medical treatment over the last century such as in surgery including anesthesia and asepsisused to avoid infection and pharmacotherapyBehavioral modelpg 134oViews health and illness primarily as a consequence of individual or household actions and beliefs and either as a reward for health living or the inevitable outcome of poor lifestyle choices and personal deficienciesoFocuses on the regulation or changing of personal conduct and cultural attitudes through education counseling and incentives in order to achieve desirable health outcomesoPrimarily views the individual and sometimes the household or community as responsible for healthoIn many cultures the behavioral model is also filtered through spiritual beliefs whereby good or ill health may be linked to supernatural phenomena Political Economy Approachpg 134oConsiders the political social cultural and economic contexts in which disease and illness arisedoesnt discard the use of medicine and biomedical technologies to treat illness but it must be coupled in social cultural and economic contextsoExamines the ways in which societal structures ir political and economic practices and institutions and class interrelations interact with the particular conditions that lead to good or ill healthoViews health as a function and reflection of linked determinants that operate at multiple levels individual household community workplace social class nation and the global political and economic contextoArgues that underlying determinants need to be address in order to improve health through for example public policy aimed at improving
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