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International Development Studies
Maliha Chishti

Week 8 Environmental ethics - explores the unferlying moral relationship bw humans and non human world and challenges the assumed moral superiority of human beings via other species. - Hierarchal relation bw humans and nature Origins Intellectual: Aristotle said, nature has made all things specifically for the sake of man. Religioustraditional view: insist that humans have domination over the earths plants and animals. Economist view: capitalisms commodification of antural resources and the idea of infinite resources to be converted into profits (Kovel 2002) Terra Nullius: Wastelands - classical notion of terra nullius refers to lands that were constructed as empty by european colonizers :lands considered to be insufficiently developed, underutilized, idle wastelands. Edward Said said, waste, disorder, uncounted resources, was to be converted into productivity - John Lockes justified the Bristish appropriation of indingenious lands without consent by saying that these lands were not put to productive and profitable use underlying the assumption that lands and resources that are elft idle must be used and utilized. Ecofeminism Priciples of 3 world (Vandana ShivaMaria MiesAna Isla) 1- the womennature connection - womens interaction with the env.nature is a reciprocal process. Womens bodiea and life cycles are prodcutive in the same way as natures forces are productive and creative. Sice women are lifgiving as nature, there is a closer intimated bond they have with the natural world. - Due to modernization and colonialism, men entered into modern and exploitative work, while women continued to be linked to lifenature thru their ongoing role as lifeproviders of food, sustenance and water. - Nature and women who work to reproduce life are often declared as unproductive and her work is only considered productive if its part of the market economy. 2- women as knowers and transmitters of earth knowledge: - women in village and rural areas have been givers of traditional knowledge about natural environment. They have created rich and elaborate knowledge about seeds, crops,waters, conservation and use of plantsteess eg use of medical plants. - This was non commercial knowledge and had exchange value so was often ignored by everyone. Medical plants for eg were traditionally produced for familys
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