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LINA02H3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 37 pages long!)


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LINA02H3
Professor
Eri Takahashi
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
LINA02H3
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Friday, 12 January 2018
LINA02
Language typology
-what is language
language vs dialect
mutual intelligibility: two people speaking and able to understand each other
dialect: not always understand by mutual speakers
countries nearby tend to share similar languages
political considerations make it tricky to count language
different countries = different language?
-Language classification
genetic classification: group languages into families based into familiar typology
linguistic typology: based on structural characteristics (sound patterns, gramma)
whats common in the languages
language universals
- a grammatical characteristic present in all or most languages
-absolute: single feature in all language
linguistic features holds in all languages
e.g. all languages have consents and vowels
-tendency: single features in most language
-implication universals
it a language have feature x it like have y
-markedness
marked traits: more complex and rare forms in human language
unmarked traits: common features
if a marked traits is found, the unmarked counterpart is also found
eg. oral vowels: unmarked nasal vowels: marked
nasal vowels: marked
!1
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Friday, 12 January 2018
-vowels in language
most languages have 5 vowels
i, e, a , o, u
usually far away from each other
most common vowel /a/
rounded vowels are usually back (except low vowel)
unrounded vowels are usually front
some languages contrast vowels based on length
long vowels (/tu:li/) the : indicate long vowels
long vowels are marked traits
-consonants
consonants universals
-stops
-voiceless stops (unmarked)
-most common phoneme /t/
- nearly all languages have nasal
-/p,t,k/ most common stops
-maximise the distant in ipa chart to max the sound
implication
-if a language has fricatives and affricate, it always have stops
-fricatives and affricate: marked
-syllable structure
all languages have CV
CV and V are unmarked
-Typology: Morphology
word: freestanding unit, can have one or more morpheme
morpheme: smallest unit of meaning, bound vs free
four types of classification
!2
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