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University of Toronto Scarborough
Chandan Narayan

LINA01 MID-TERM STUDY NOTES Lecture 1 Linguistics is the scientific study of human language and language use. Linguists study: o What humans must know in order to use language o How languages are structured o How humans acquire language Rules governed creativity U-shaped development of English past tense formation in childrens English 1. Stage I: walked, played, came, went a. Children learn individual words separately 2. Stage II: walked, played, comed, goed, holded a. Children discovers the regular English past-tense formation rule, i.e., Add ed. and applies it everywhere 3. Stage III: walked, played, camed, wented a. Children realize that there is something different about the irregular verbs (went, came) but still (over) apply the Add ed. rule. 4. Stage IV: walked, played, came, went, held a. Children finally figure out how irregulars work. The knowledge that speakers have that enables them to produce and understand their language is called their linguistic competence. Linguists take a descriptive approach to language; that is, they are interested in how speakers actually talk and what that reveals about the underlying (subconscious) knowledge speakers have about their language. Prescriptive approach dictates how people should speak. The goal of such approach is not to describe the rules people know (subconsciously), but to tell them what rules they should follow. Areas of linguistics Phonetics: the articulation and perception of speech sounds Phonology: the patterning of speech sounds Morphology: word formation Syntax: sentence formation Semantics: the interpretation of words and sentences Lecture 2 Consonants are sounds produce with either a complete closure or a narrowing of the vocal tract so that there is some obstruction in the flow of air out of the mouth. Vowels are sounds produced with no major obstruction in the vocal tract so that air can flow relatively freely through the mouth. Classification of Consonants Voicing: the state of the vocal folds Nasality: whether the air is passing through your nose or not Place of articulation: location of constriction in the vocal tract Manner of articulation: degree and kind of constriction in the vocal tract Consonant classification: Voicing Voiceless sounds, when the vocal folds are pulled apart (abducted), air passes through the glottis and the vocal folds do not vibrate. (s and f)Air passes without much interference. No vibration. Voiced sounds, when the vocal folds are brought close together (adducted), but no tightly closed, air passing between them causes them to vibrate. (v and z)Air passing between them causes them to vibrate. You can sense the vibration of the vocal folds with the larynx. Place of articulation Upper lip: Labial, closure or near-closure of the lips (pin, my) Sounds involving both lips are termed bilabial Lower lip and upper teeth are called labiodentals Upper teeth: Interdental, the tongue is placed between the teeth (five, thin) With the tongue placed against or near the teeth are called dentals Alveolar ridge: Alveolar, a small ridge protrudes from just behind the upper front teeth, the tongue may touch or be brought near this ridge (tap, sap, nap) Back of alveolar ridge: Alveopalatal, behind the alveolar ridge, the roof of the mouth rises sharply (she, red, chip) Palate, hard palate: Palatal, the highest part of the roof of the mouth (yes) Velum, soft palate: Velar, soft area towards the rear of the rood of the mouth is called the velum. Sounds made with the tongue touching or near this position are called velars (kick, go) Labiovelar: the tongue is raised near the velum and the lips are rounded at the same time, the glide heard word-initially in wet Uvula: the small fleshy flap of tissue known as the uvula (no example in English) Pharynx wall: Pharyngeal, the area of the throat between the uvula and the larynx is known as the pharynx (no example in English) Glottis: Glottal, sounds produced using the vocal folds as primary articulators (_-oh-_oh, heave, hog) Consonant classification: Voicing Nasal, produced with lowered velum (velic opening) and the air passes through the nasal cavity (my, new, sing) Oral, produced with velic closure and no air passes through the nasal cavity Try switching from n to d, m to b, or ng to g Consonant classification: Manner of Articulation Stops (Oral and Nasal): formed with complete closure and no air passing out of the mouth Non-nasal stops: velic closure, no air passing out of the nose Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal Voiceless [p] pea [t] tea [k] key []_uh-_uh Voiced [b] bee [d] deed [g] geese Nasal stops: complete closure in the mouth, velic opening, air passing out of the nose Labial Alveolar Velar Nasal [m] me [n] need [] king Fricatives: formed with a constriction in the mouth or at the glottis, narrow enough to cause frication. Consonants produced with a continuous air flow through the mouth. Glottal state Place of articulation Transcription Labiodental Voiceless Fan [f] Voiced Van [v] Interdental Voiceless Thin [+ Voiced Then [] Alveolar Voiceless Sun [s] Voiced Zip [z] Alveopalatal Voiceless Ship [] Voiced Azure [] Glottal Voiceless Hat [h] Affricates: complete closure followed by a fricative release at the same place of articulation Alveopalatal [t] church [d] judge Liquids: a cover term for laterals and rhotics Laterals: sounds produced with air moving around the sides of the tongue [l] lead Rhotics: r-like sounds Retroflex: curling the tongue tip back into the mouth or by bunching the tongue upward and back in the mouth [r] read Flap: tongue tip strikes the alveolar ridge as it passes across it [] butter Glides: rapidly articulated, vowel-like sounds, followed by a voiceless stop. Palatal Labio-velar (Labial-velar)
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