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LINA02 Contemporary Linguistic AnalysisMidterm NotesChapter 6Semantics the analysis of meaningsemanticsthe study of meaning in human language61 The nature of meaningosemantic relations among wordssynonymyhave the same meaning in some or all contextsie vacation holidays perfect synonymy is rareantonymyare opposites with respect to some componentie dark light polysemya word has two or more related meaningsie bright a shining b intelligenthomophonya single form has two or more entirely distinct meaningsie light a not heavy b illumination homophones do not have to be spelled identically write and right are homophonespolysemy and homophony create lexical ambiguityrelies on context surrounding words and sentences make the intended meaning clearosemantic relations among sentencesparaphrasehave the same meaningie a The police chased the burglar b The burglar was chased by the policemust have the same truth conditions active sentencesambiguous passive sentences can only ndhave 2 meaningentailmentthe truth of one sentence guarantees the truth of another sentence ie a The park wardens killed the bear b The bear is deadcontradictionif one sentence is true then another sentence must be falseie a Charles is a bachelor b Charles is marriedconnotationthe set of associations that a words use can evokeie winter snow cold short days icedenotation equating the meaning of a word with the entities to which it refers to ie winterthe season between winter and springextensioncorresponds to the set of entities that it picks out in the world referents intensioninvolves notions like female and human mental images Prime Minister of Canada E Stephen Harper I leader of the governing partycomponential analysisan approach to represent a words intension by breaking it down into smaller semantic components using semantic featuresmanboyhuman humanmale maleadult adultallows us to group entities into natural classes godenotes the entity undergoing change Circulatory Issue Infinite Regressverb meaning and subcategorizationsee textbook pg 19162 The conceptual systemofuzzy conceptshaving no clearcut boundaries eg tall old rich genius etcograded membership members can be graded in terms of their typicalitysuggest that concepts have an internal structureprototypical exemplars ie birdsometaphora meaning connection that is abstract or figurativeeg this is goldolexicalization the process whereby concepts are encoded in the words of a languageie Inuktitut falling snowqanaEnglish requires two separate wordsomotion verbsEnglish has words that can express motion and mannerconflation patternorolledoslidolimpedoswirledFrench has motion and pathmotiona path b manner of movement c moving thingcombinations can differ from language to languagehighly systematicogrammatical conceptsaffixes and nonlexical functional categories are grammaticalizedoeg ed s re unoeg must may the aor not and63 Syntax and sentence interpretationoThe Principle of Compositionalitythe meaning of a sentence is determined by its component parts and the manner in which they are arranged in syntactic structureconstructional meaningthe causedmotion construction PPdir represents a PP in which the preposition denotes a directionoForm NPVNPPPdiroMeaning X causes Y to go somewhereoeg Jon pushed the truck off the tableditransitive constructionoForm NPVNPNPoMeaning X causes Y to have Zoeg Jerry baked Lou a cakestructural ambiguitytwo interpretations can be depicted from a sentenceie a wealthy men and women wealthy men and womenothematic rolesagentthe entity that performs an actionthemethe entity undergoing an actionsourcethe starting point for a movement
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