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Midterm

ch1-6 midterm


Department
Media Studies
Course Code
MDSA01H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Study Guide
Midterm

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Everything is learned in two ways.
Somatically- through direct sensory perception of environment. (small percentage)
Medium- via indirect channels second hand information.
Critical Media Studies- about the social and cultural consequences of the revolutionary
capability.
Media split into 4 sub-categories. 1) print media 2)motion picture 3) broadcast media 4)
news media
Postmodernity- describes the historical epoch that began to emerge in 1960s shift of
economic mode of production, goods-based manufacturing to information-based services.
5 key trends 1) convergence 2) mobility 3) fragmentation 4) globalization 5) simulation
1)Convergence- tendency of formerly diverse media to share a common integrated
platform ex. Use of pixels to create less distortion and decay over long distance.
2)Mobility- Portable media
3)Fragmentation- Wide varieties of expansion in media
4) Globalization- complex set of social political and economic processes where the
physical boundaries are collapsing.
5) Simulation- real without origin or reality.
Socialization- process by which persons both individually and collectively learn, adopt
and internalize the prevailing cultural beliefs values and norms of a society.
What we learn. Split to content and form, Content refers to the informational component
of a message.
How we learn- form describes the cognitive component of a message. As way message is
packaged and delivered.
Critical studies- umbrella term used to describe an array of theoretical perspectives
which through diverse are united by their sceptical attitude humanistic approach.
1) Attitude: sceptical way of understanding the pressures and practices that
contrains it.
2) Approach: humanistic emphasizes self-reflection, critical citizenship and
democratic principles.
3) Assessment: political Determining whose interests are served by the media and
how those interest contribute to domination exploitation and asymmetrical
relations of power.
4) Action: social activism operate on the premise that scholarship should be action
oriented and social responsibility to identify injustice but to confront and
challenge it.
Theory- is explanatory and interpretive tool that simultaneously enables and limits
understanding

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Marxist Analysis-(pp19-46)
Power of economy shaping media content.
Marxism- theory and social and political movement rooted in the idea that “society is the
history of class struggles” started from The German Ideology in 1845
Historical materialism- mode of production in society determines social relations of
production.
Superstructure- social consciousness such as culture, religion, education, politics, and
the judicial system.
Economic base- material conditions of society
Mode of production by “force of production” such as land natural resource and
technology and its “relations of production” such as labor and ownerships.
Profit-motive- the continuous desire to increase capital.
Current deeply intertwined patterns of media ownership
Concentration- reflects an organization state in which the ownership and control of an
entire industry is dominated by just a few companies. Also called “oligopoly”.
Conglomeration- corporate practice of accumulating multiple, though not necessarily
media companies and businesses through startups, mergers, buyouts and takeovers.
Integration- ownership pattern in which the subsidi9ary companies or branches within
corporation are strategically interrelated.
vertial integration- a corporation that owns and controls various aspects of production
and distribution within a single media industry.
Horizontal integration- an ownership pattern in which a corporation dominates one
stage in the production process.
Multinationalism- corporate presence in multiple countries.
Strategies for strong and tactic for weak to prevent domination.
Main strategies of profit maximization in media industry
Cross-development- involvement of multiple subsidiary compaies in the development
production and distribution. Sometimes called “synergy”
Advertising-
Spectacle- making realality – unreality or fake. Or exaggeration.
Logic of safety- make sequals trilogies spin-offs to avoid dangers“nothing succeds like
success”
Joint ventures- combinations of companies into project to share if failure/success
Niche marketing- targeting of a specific segment of the public that shares particular but
known demographic traits, profits two-fold.
Consequences- reduction of diversity, restriction of democratic ideals and spread of
cultural imperialism.

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Organizational Analysis-(pp47-71)
Why media organization produces the kinds of content it does.
Organizations- a system of ordered relationships and coordinated activities directed
toward specific goals.
Professionals are individuals who possess expertise in a particular area or field
Assessing communicative practices
Organizational culture- the set of norms and customs, artifacts, and events and values
and assumptions that emerge as a consequence of organizational member’s
communicative practice.
5 ways to study an organization’s culture
1)Performance- expressive displays symbolic significance. 4 types
Ritual- personal or organizational behaviors that members engage in on a regular or
routine basis.
Sociality- codes of etiquette with regard to friendliness, small talk, joking and privacy
within organization.
Politics- influence the degree of independence, negotiating and coalition.
Enculturation emphasizes those communicative performances wherein the newcomer
learns the social knowledge and skills of the culture.
2) Narratives- the stories members tell about their workplace experiences are another
way to evaluate the endless recreation of an organizations culture. 3 types
Personal- convey individual subjective experiences
Collegial- told about other organizational members
Corporate- about the organization itself.
3) Textual- examining an organization’s culture is through the texts. Formal and
informal texts. To reinforce managerial perspectives
4)Management- concerns how organizational culture is developed and directed by
managers for the purpose of improving operating efficiencies.
5)Technology- create rise of citizen journalism
Conventions- describe the norms that govern the technical and creative choices made by
workers. 5 types of conventions
1) motivated- allows desire for a sense of community belonging and group cohesion.
2) Shared- convention are shared must be internalized by other employees
3) Naturalized- adopt and abide unconsciously and unreflectively
4) Resilient- slow change. The question of “why do you do it that way”
5) Directive- towards one set of practice and behaviour while exclude others
Professionalization- the process by which and individual with free will and choice is
transformed into an ideological subject whose behaviors reaffirm one’s status as a
professional.
Objectivity- the reporting of facts in an impartial manner.
Journalistic beats- are the places and institutions where news is expected to occur on
any given day such as police station and courhouses.
News agencies- produce and sell stories to other new providers or non-profit
cooperatives.
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