Media Globalization Midterm 2014—Abbreviation
International Organization: An organization with an international membership, scope or presence.
INGOS—International nongovernmental organizations
An intergovernmental organization established on Oct. 241945 to promote
International cooperation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was created
following World War II to prevent another such conflict.
WTO—World Trade Organization:
Created in 1995, successor of GATT – 157 member states as of September.
2012, representing more than 97% of total world trade.
Aim: to eliminate national obstacles to the import and export of goods and services.
WTO is the most power global media policy institution, as it creates the pressure to liberalize and privatize staterun
media and telecom firms and can legally enforce its rules by imposing large trade sanctions on member nations that
hinder the free movements of goods or services.
GATT—General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Was a multilateral agreement regulating international trade.
It was negotiated during the United Nations conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure
of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO)
ITU—International Telecommunication Union
Focus on the technical aspect of global communications. It coordinates the global use of radio spectrum, and allocation
of satellite orbits.
It establishes global standards fostering seamless interconnection of different telecommunications systems (e.g.
standardization of equipment and protocols)
Previously known as “International Telegraph Union”
UNESCO—United Nation Educational Scientific Cultural Organization
Through the NWICO debates in 1970s, UNESCO put issues of international communication on the map
Universal Declaration on cultural Diversity (2001)—Convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of
ICANN—Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
Not affiliated with the United Nations (UN)—Nonprofit organization formed in 1998, based in Cali
Setting policy for and managing the allocation and assignment of Internet protocol addresses
Internet Protocol (IP): addresses are unique numeric identifies that are needed by every device that connects to the
AFP—Agency FrancePress (now: Havas)
A French news agency, the oldest one in the world, and one the of three largest with Associated Press and Reuters
It is also the largest French news agency.
NWICO—New World Information and Communication Order
A term that was coined in a debate over media representation of the developing world