CHAPTER 9.docx

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Management (MGT)
Zachariah Campbell

CHAPTER 9: Managing Human Resources The Foundations of Human Resource Management: - Human Resource Management (HRM): set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining an effective workforce The Strategic Importance of HRM - Critical for effective organizational functioning - Growing in importance – due to legal complexities, improves productivity, improves costs - HRM has an effect on firm performance - Use HRM to keep and motivate good employees - Integrate HR plans with other strategic planning activities Human Resource Planning – ANALYSIS & FORECAST - Job analysis & forecasting the demand for and supply of labour - Job analysis: o Job analysis: a detailed study of the specific duties in a particular job & the human qualities required for that job o 2 parts:  Job description: the objectives, responsibilities, & key tasks of a job; the conditions under which it will be done; its relationship to other positions; & skills needed to perform it  Job specification: the specific skills, education, and experience needed to perform a job o Need job analysis to develop appropriate selection methods & job relevant performance appraisal systems, to set equal compensation rates - Forecasting HR demand & supply – need to plan for organization’s future HR needs o Assess trends in past HR usage, future organizational plans, general economic trends o Good sales forecast = foundation o Use historical ratios to predict demand for employees o Forecasting involves 2 tasks:  Forecasting internal supply - # & type of employees who will be in firm at some future date  Forecasting external supply - # & type of people who will be available for hiring from labour market at large o Simplest approach – adjusting staff levels for turnovers & promotions o Helps companies see where there will be too many qualified or not enough qualified people o Replacement charts: an HR technique that lists each important managerial position, who occupies it, how long he or she will probably stay in it before moving on and who (by name) is qualified or will be qualified to move into it – allows good amount of time to plan development for people seen as successors o Employee information systems (skills inventories): computerized systems that contain information on each employee’s education, skills, work experience, & career aspirations – fast access to what you need and to see who is qualified o To forecast external supply, have to use surveys etc. from unis, etc. to see who or how many people will be qualified - Matching HR supply & demand – make plans to manage shortfalls or overstaffing o Shortfall = new hires, convince retires to stay, productivity-enhancing systems installed, use external surveys, temporary workers o Overstaff = lay off, transfer employees, don’t replace individuals who quit Staffing the Organization: - Look for ethic, reliability, willingness to stay on job - External & internal staffing Recruiting Human Resources - Recruiting: the phase in the staffing of a company in which the firm seeks to develop a pool of interested, qualified applicants for a position - Internal recruiting: considering present employees as candidates for job openings; unionized firms in contract; high-level positions use skills inventory systems or manager referrals - External recruiting: attracting people outside the organization to apply for jobs; advertising, job fairs, campaigns, etc. - Internships: a short-term paid position where students focus on a specific project; if the manager likes you they will hire you Selecting Human Resources - Once recruiting process gets a pool of applicants, need to select someone to hire - Validation: the process of determining the predictive value of information – need to get info about factors that are predictive of future performance - Application forms, tests (aptitude, skill, etc.), interviews are the main things used - Can use physical examinations, polygraph (lie) or drug tests (usually illegal) Developing Human Resources: - Most employees need additional training to grow & develop - Orientation, then assessment of training & development needs (performance of a needs analysis) and then the selection of the best training techniques and methods New Employee Orientation - Orientation: the initial acquainting of new employees with the company’s policies and programs, personnel with whom they will interact, and the nature of the job; many include company’s culture etc. so employees know who they are working with and how to function in company Training & Development - Starting point in assessing training & development is a needs analysis – determining the organization’s true needs and the training programs you need to meet them - Needs analysis focuses on 2 things: o Organization’s job-related needs – nature of work that needs to be done; what skills etc does organization need to compete & be effective? o Capabilities of current work force Work-Based Programs - Work-based programs: a technique that ties training & development activities directly to task and performance - On-the-job training: those development programs in which employees gain new skills while performing them at work; informal & usually done by supervisors - Systematic job rotations & transfers: a technique in which an employee is systematically rotated or transferred from one job to another Instructional-Based Programs - Instructional-based programs: training workers through the use of classroom based programs such as the lecture approach - Lecture or discussion approach: an instructional-based program in which a trainer presents material in a descriptive fashion to those attending a trainee program - Off-the-job training: those development programs in which employees learn new skills away from the normal work site Team Building & Group Based Training - This is becoming more popular as companies use group initiatives - Designed to facilitate intragroup co-operation among team members - Ex. outdoor exercises Evaluation Employee Performance: - Performance appraisal: a formal program for evaluating how well an employee is performing the job; helps managers to determine how effective they are in recruiting and selecting employees; also contributes to effective training, development & compensation The Performance Appraisal Process (conduct then feedback) - Conducting the performance appraisal o Individual’s supervisor most likely to conduct PA, supervisor responsible for employee’s high performance & accountable for their bad performance o Supervisor would know the job in and out and what it takes to do well o Sources of information in PA process – subordinates of individual being appraised (if they work well then the individual is doing well), self-evaluation, customers (feedback forms) – each method has weaknesses & short comings, managers must choose the best one - Providing performance feedback o Next step = provide feedback, coaching & counseling o Most managers don’t want to do this because feedback is usually negative, afraid workers will get mad or upset o PA will almost always focus on negatives o Critical to provide feedback though, to improve in areas they are weak Providing Compensation and Benefits: - Employees need to be compen
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