Listening to Music Exam notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Music and Culture
William Bowen

Listening to Music Midterm Exam notes MODES OF LISTENING: (1) Copland: Component parts of the listening process: - Sensual plane - Expressive plane - The sheerly Musical plane Music and Motion (TIME) – Igor Stravinsky - Music supposes a specific organization in time - All music describes the relationship between: o The passing of time o Duration of music o Material/Technical means of music - Two kinds of music:  Music that evolves parallel to ontological time thus inducing the mind of the listener creating a feeling of euphoria or ‘dynamic calm’  Dominated by principle of similarity  Not self-contained. Dislocates centre of attention and sets itself up in the ‘unstable’ and therefore is adaptable to the translations of the composer’s emotions.  Dominant for music containing the will to expression  Adheres to ‘psychological time’ Time - Tempo: Speed of Music  Slow/fast - Rhythm: Succession of durations  Measured/unmeasured - Beat: Regular pulse underlying the music  Strong/weak - Meter: The regular(successive) grouping of beats  Duple  Triple  Quadruple  Compound - Changing Meters: Switching from One meter to another - Rubato: Stretching/Contracting of beats by a performer - Syncopation: Stressing weak/off beats MODES OF LISTENING (2) – Ola Stockfelt - Among common culture repertoire, many people still live in a subculture with a more specialized musical language - Listeners also have the competence to use the same type of music in different ways in different situations - Daily listening is conditioned by the situation in which one meets the music in rather than the music itself - Mode of listening adopted by the listener in a situation depends on:  How the listener chooses to listen  The mode of listening the listener wishes to adopt  The choice is not free/accidental - To listen adequately means that:  One masters and develops ability to listen for what is relevant to the genre in the music  i.e. what is adequate to understanding according to the genre’s context - analysis of everyday music must be based on listening adequately according to given situation  adequacy determined by the genre in which the music was created  or: the genre to which the music belongs to that day(location of music) Musical Space – Pitch - Pitch: quality of highness/lowness in sound  Pitch – Horizontal View:  Melody: succession of pitches  Tune: Singable melody, simple  Phrase: Section of the melody  Motive: A Short fragment  Characteristics of Melodies:  Motion: step (conjunct) or leap (disjunct)  Range: Distance from high -> low  Shape  Form  Pitch – Vertical View:  Harmony: simultaneous sounding of different pitches  Consonance: relatively stable combination of pitches  Dissonance: relatively unstable combination of pitches  Texture: Interweaving of melodic and harmonic aspects in musical fabric  Monophony: single melodic line  Polyphone: 2 or more melodic lines o Counterpoint: combination of two or more melodic lines according to established rules  Homophony: One MAIN melody plus accompaniment - Interval: distance between two pitches - Scale: ordered arrangement of pitches - Tuning: the pitch(es) an instrument is set(tuned) to MODES OF LISTENING (3) – Aniruddh Patel - Music Cognition: Making, perceiving and responding to music - Music and Language - Cadence: the sequence of notes and chords comprising the close of a musical phrase - Tonality: Feeling of centrality of one note (and its chord) to a passage of music Structure - Hearing Musical Structures  Music and memory  From transparent to hidden structures  Serialism: composing with a series (i.e. Pitches)  From order to chaos  Aleatoric or Chance music: Composer leaves certain aspects of music to chance - Musical Forms  Repetition  Strophic Form  Song with same music for each Stanza  Theme and Variations  A tune PLUS a number of variations  Contrast  Binary form:  Two different sections  Ternary Form: rd st  Three part form: 3 part returns to 1  Through composed Instruments and Voices - Aspects of a Musical Sound  Duration: Brevity/Length of sound  Pitch: Lowness/Highness of Sound  Dynamics: Softness/Loudness  Crescendo (getting louder)  Decrescendo (getting softer)  Articulation  The separation of successive notes and how they’re accomplished by performer  Smooth vs. Detached  accent  Timbre or Tone colour: Colour of the sound - Classifications of Instruments in the modern orchestra  Strings:  Taut strings attached to a sound box to amplify  Pitch varied by length of vibrating string  Played with bow or plucked  Woodwinds  Made of wood/metal  Blowed across open hole or reed  Tone produced by air vibrating through the pipe with holes along its length  Brass  Cup-shaped mouth piece that flares into bell  Lip vibration creates vibration of air in tube o Pitch varied by slides/valves  Made of brass/silver  Percussion  Sound created by striking/rattling instrument  Some have no fixed pitched/others follow regular scales  Keyboards  Sound produced by strikin
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