PHLB09 Review Session Qs.docx

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Kelin Emmett

1 PHLB09 Review Session Lana’s and Jana’s Tutorials Wednesday, April 10th SAMPLE SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. Briefly explain the discarded-created distinction (DCD) as it relates to stem cell research. What is one defense of (i.e. argument for) the DCD that Devolder considers? What is her reply to this argument? - Creating stem cells for research purposes - Defense: Embryos should be respected because it is a potential person - Reply: Do not have a problem using embryos for other means (i.e. creating children for couples) so why not for helping people overcome diseases and injuries? 2. Identify and explain the three models of the mother-fetus relationship Seymour discusses - Woman and fetus as one entity - Woman and fetus as separate entities - Woman and fetus as separate but indivisibly linked 3. Bernat et al. discuss several benefits of PRHN (patient refusal of hydration and nutrition). Identify and explain two of these - Not painful - Gives time to think and reconsider 4. Define the Doctrine of Double Effect and explain using an example - Intend for good thing to happen but had effect as side-effect - Relieving pain through palliative care but dosage causes death - Merely foreseen vs. not intending - Means to end - An action with an intended consequence and a foreseen consequence, action permissible as long as intend acceptable consequence and foresee bad one - Terminal sedation: intended is to alleviate suffering, foreseen is death - Justification – psychological helpful 5. Explain the difference between a positive right and a negative right. Illustrate with an example related to one of the topics we’ve covered in the course - Positive: provision of service 2 - Negative: to be left alone - Ex: o Request vs. refusal  euthanasia o Abortion o Violinist  positive right to life? 6. Explain three ethical issues that arise when considering Dax’s case - Patient autonomy vs. physician paternalism - Respect - Competency o Capacity to make rational decision - Doctors said if went through with it would have a good life - Doctor obligation - Negative right (don’t want treatment), positive right (ask to kill him, to die) - Family influence o Hardwig 7. Explain Terminal Sedation and its relationship to the Doctrine of Double Effect - Relieve pain through sedation but overdosing kills the patient. - The use of high doses of pain medication to treat a patient’s suffering at the end of his natural life, with the awareness that such high dosages will hasten the patient’s death by reducing respiration and heart rate 8. Explain two of Thomson’s thought experiments and discuss how they support her argument in “A Defense of Abortion” - Violinist – not obliged to give your body - Open window in a house – not giving permission just because knew the risks and took them 9. Explain the two sub-variations of Seymour’s Indivisibly Linked model -
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