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POLA01H3 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Counterargument

Political Science
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Reading Summary 1 POLA02 By: Hamza Ibrahim
1. Thesis: Article explains the fundamental causes of differences in prosperity
between countries is due to factors relating to institution. Author states in order to
understand these factors we have to interpret the changes of institutions unrelated
to omitted factors and geographical factors which remain constant.
2. Evidence: Author explains the colonization under Europeans caused
transformations regarding institutions but did not affect geography. Geographical
factors are constant and the prosperity of a nation is due to changes in institutions
as explained by the author as the reversal of fortune hypothesis is consistent with
the institution hypothesis rather than the geographical hypothesis due to the fact
that civilizations and nations such as the Aztecs and Incas where prosperous but
today are not due to changes in institutions.
3. Counterargument: Article also explains that geographical factors could relate to
prosperity especially during the European colonization of countries as it likely
influenced institutions such as plantations in the Caribbean. Author states that in
order to interpret as to why a nation is poor you have to look at institutions factors
rather than geographical factors.
4. Importance: Author is trying to prove that institutions are very important in
economic development and poor and dysfunctional institutions that exist
throughout the world can transform such as Botswana, Africa that today has
become the fastest growing country since it gained its independence. As a result it
is through changes in institutions that will result in rapid economic growth
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