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POLB30H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Texas Education Agency Accountability Ratings System, Developing Country, Polygraph


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLB30H3
Professor
Margaret Kohn
Study Guide
Final

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POLB30 FINAL EXAM REVIEW
Cause Lawyering: Using legal skills to pursue ends & ideals that transcend client service
Equal protection
Definition:
Equal Protection Clause → 14th Amendment
14th Amendment to the US constitution: “No state shall make or
enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of
citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person
of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to
any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
No state can deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal to protection
laws
Relevant Landmark Case: Brown v. Board of Education
Clause was on the bases for Brown v. Board of Education
SC decision to dismantle racial segregation
Justices ruled unanimously that racial segregation of children in
public schools was unconstitutional
Significance:
Showed the limitations of enforcement in court “separate but equal”
Black students encountered more racism bc they were integrated
into public schools
School boards fired most black teachers, unfit for teaching
integrated classrooms
Integration of Central High, Little Rock
3 high schools serving Little Rock
The new all- white Hall High School, the all-black Horace
Mann High School, and Central
Central had been the only white high school in Little Rock
Only Central would experience integration, w. nine carefully
chosen black students:
Poor blacks and rich whites would remain in the
isolated, racially homogeneous environments of
Horace Mann and Hall high schools
Wealthier whites “retained the option of exiting the
public school system altogether either by educating
their children privately or by fleeing to the (generally
white) suburbs.

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Brown decision radically altered elite treatment of
race issues as the focus of white moderates shifted
from labor reforms to eliminating de jure segregation.
RESULT: Government programs designed to give blacks a
hand up were highly visible and resented.
Blue-collar whites in Detroit measured their success by their
ability to control their distance from blacks as a group.
Failure meant being forced to share community, schools, or
economic status with blacks.
State action doctrine
Definition:
Legal principle that holds that the Bill of Rights applies only to the gov’t
and not to private entities. Impossible for private parties
(citizens/corporations) to violate amendments, do not have to comply w.
procedural/ substantive process under 14th amendment
Brown v. Board of Education
- Due to laws that allowed segregation by race, public schools were segregated
- established in Plessy v. Ferguson, segregation was considered constitutional,
which established Jim Crow Laws. Private discrimination isnt accountable in 14th
amendement for private parties in private manners (citizens/corporations)
- Caste system that oppressed all blacks, regardless of class, geographic lines
BUt psychology of laws allowed white elites to limit education and
economic opportunities for poor and working white class
- Blacks lost right to vote, 1800s 8 states passed laws for segregation
In Brown, denied admission to attend a white school, sued because public school
education, and schools in their communities should be on a non segregated basis.
SC decision to dismantle racial segregation
Justices ruled unanimously that racial segregation of children in
public schools was unconstitutional
Facial neutrality: a law that does not appear to be discriminatory on its face, but
its discriminatory in its application effects
Separate but equal
Definition

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Legal doctrine in US constitutional law, falsely promised that they will
ensure equal opportunity for all races. It may look one way, but there is a
hint of a different motivation.
racial segregation did not violate 14th amendment → Social equality and legal
equality are different
Brown v. Board of Education
Determined in Plessy v. Ferguson, stated that racially separate facilities if equal did not
not violate constitution = segregation not discrimination
Plessy ⅛ black and under law he was considered black, Went on
train told conductor he was ⅛ black, kicked of train.
Sued and went to SC, court ruled it was not illegal bc blacks ride on
their own, and white ride on their own
SC upheld Jim Crow Law, required the segregation of blacks and
white on railroads
Justice Henry Brown , Equal protection clause intend to defend
equality in civil rights, not social arrangements
Legal Basis for ruling?
Precedent case Roberts v. City of Boston
Segregated schools in North before Civil War, if North can do
it South can do it after war
Seg. was okay, as long as it met standard of sep. but equal
Jim Crow enabled many white allies to maintain their social
and economic advantages without giving up the moral high
ground.
In Brown, plaintiff argued that they were deprived of equal protection
under 14th amendment, separate but equal doctrine was used
Disparate impact
Definition:
Practices that are fair in form, but discriminatory in operation.
Brown decision radically altered elite treatment of race issues as the focus
of white moderates shifted from labor reforms to eliminating de jure
segregation
Detailed explanation of its relevance to a landmark case (choose most
significant):
Relevant Landmark Case: Brown V. Board of Education
Significance
Desegregation results = more reinforced racism
Racial liberalism’s individualistic and prejudice- centered view of
formal equality failed to anticipate multiple interest divergences:
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