- Anarchy is a central concept in IR theory denoting the absence of an overarching governing authority in
the international arena.
- This may be contrasted with the hierarchical structure of authority that characterizes the domestic
- The relevance of anarchy varies among different schools of IR theory, but is generally discussed in
terms of being a structural constraint upon the behavior of states.
- For example, the absence of a recognized third-party authority in a international territorial dispute will
create different security risks and related expectations than would a similar dispute arising domestically.
- Realists (e.g., Morgenthau) and particularly neo-realists (e.g., Waltz) view anarchy as an ever-present
structural constraint on IR that leads to a security dilemma and predictable political outcomes.
- Classical liberals (e.g., Wilson) see the spread of democracy and progress minimizing the effect of
anarchy, while neo-liberals (e.g., Keohane) find similar hope in international institutions.
- Constructivists (e.g., Wendt) see states as much more active in defining the structural constraint of
- More than just an IR theory, but a new method of studying IR
- Theorists where from a new generation t trained in political science, economics, social sciences,
mathematics rather than diplomatic history, international law or political philosophy
- they used a more methological approach
- main task is to collect empirical data which can be used for measurement, classification, generalization
and validation of hypothesis
- more interested in observable facts and measurable data to find recurring behavioural patterns t the
- laid the foundations for Neo-Realism and Neo-Liberalism
-normative theorists try to clarify moral issues of international relations
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-Cosmopolitanism t normative doctrine focuses on individuals and on the whole community of
humankind as the units of world politics
-communitarianism t focuses on political communities, especially nation-states as units of politics
One of the tasks of normative theory is determining which doctrine has priority
-many theorists t normative conflict cannot be resolved
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