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Political Science
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Gibbs, Holly

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- Anarchy is a central concept in IR theory denoting the absence of an overarching governing authority in
the international arena.
- This may be contrasted with the hierarchical structure of authority that characterizes the domestic
- The relevance of anarchy varies among different schools of IR theory, but is generally discussed in
terms of being a structural constraint upon the behavior of states.
- For example, the absence of a recognized third-party authority in a international territorial dispute will
create different security risks and related expectations than would a similar dispute arising domestically.
- Realists (e.g., Morgenthau) and particularly neo-realists (e.g., Waltz) view anarchy as an ever-present
structural constraint on IR that leads to a security dilemma and predictable political outcomes.
- Classical liberals (e.g., Wilson) see the spread of democracy and progress minimizing the effect of
anarchy, while neo-liberals (e.g., Keohane) find similar hope in international institutions.
- Constructivists (e.g., Wendt) see states as much more active in defining the structural constraint of
- More than just an IR theory, but a new method of studying IR
- Theorists where from a new generation t trained in political science, economics, social sciences,
mathematics rather than diplomatic history, international law or political philosophy
- they used a more methological approach
-ZÀ}µo](}uµo^oÁ_}Æo]vZÁ}o}(]vv]}nal relations
- main task is to collect empirical data which can be used for measurement, classification, generalization
and validation of hypothesis
- more interested in observable facts and measurable data to find recurring behavioural patterns t the
- laid the foundations for Neo-Realism and Neo-Liberalism
-normative theorists try to clarify moral issues of international relations
-Chris Brown t µuu]Ìu]v}v}À]]v}^}u}}o]]v]u_v^}uuµv]]v]u_
-Cosmopolitanism t normative doctrine focuses on individuals and on the whole community of
humankind as the units of world politics
-communitarianism t focuses on political communities, especially nation-states as units of politics
One of the tasks of normative theory is determining which doctrine has priority
-many theorists t normative conflict cannot be resolved
Economic Liberalism
-emerged in late 16th and 17th vµÇ]v}v}Z^}À-Pµo]}v_}(Z}v}uÇÇZ
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-Key t individualized economic preferences lead to optimal levels of supply and demand both
domestically and internationally
-state should back-off as much as it can through both domestic regulations (subsides to preferred
-ideas connected to Free Trade and Comparative Advantage
-If country A & B produces both Wine & Wool, it serves both countries for A to focus on producing what
it produces better and import the other from B
-trade can be mutually profitable to both A and B
-Spread of interconnection of economic, social, and cultural relations across international borders
-1.) Information is universally available in real time, simultaneously
-2.) Technology has tied countries & finical & banking centers together
-few countries or parts can remain insulated from financial shocks & changes
-3.) technology t pools resources and share financial risks on international scale
Hegemonic Stability Theory
-Hegemon t dominant military and economic power necessary for creation of liberal world market
- --absence of power, liberal rules cannot be enforced
- Hegemonic Stability Theory t from mercantilist ideas on politics being in charge of economics
-liberal element t dominant power does not manipulate international economic relations for its own
sakes t creates open world economy based on free trade
---benefits all states not just Hegemon
- set forth by Charles Kindlebeiger & Robert Golpin
- risks that economic relations will deteriorate into nationalistic, self-]vµ]vPíõïì[
-America became a Hegemon after WW2
- positive view of nature compared to realists
-humans self-interested and competitive to a point
-reason can overcome drive for power & insecurity, that make the threat of conflict and war inevitable &
-notion of progress focused on individual
---realists t state collective compromise to overcome security dilemma
---liberals t state agreement that protects individual rights & freedoms while facilitating co-operation
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