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17 Dec 2010
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Anarchy
- Anarchy is a central concept in IR theory denoting the absence of an overarching governing authority in
the international arena.
- This may be contrasted with the hierarchical structure of authority that characterizes the domestic
arena.
- The relevance of anarchy varies among different schools of IR theory, but is generally discussed in
terms of being a structural constraint upon the behavior of states.
- For example, the absence of a recognized third-party authority in a international territorial dispute will
create different security risks and related expectations than would a similar dispute arising domestically.
- Realists (e.g., Morgenthau) and particularly neo-realists (e.g., Waltz) view anarchy as an ever-present
structural constraint on IR that leads to a security dilemma and predictable political outcomes.
- Classical liberals (e.g., Wilson) see the spread of democracy and progress minimizing the effect of
anarchy, while neo-liberals (e.g., Keohane) find similar hope in international institutions.
- Constructivists (e.g., Wendt) see states as much more active in defining the structural constraint of
anarchy.
Behaviouralism
- More than just an IR theory, but a new method of studying IR
- Theorists where from a new generation t trained in political science, economics, social sciences,
mathematics rather than diplomatic history, international law or political philosophy
- they used a more methological approach
-ZÀ}µo](}uµo^oÁ_}Æo]vZÁ}o}(]vv]}nal relations
- main task is to collect empirical data which can be used for measurement, classification, generalization
and validation of hypothesis
- more interested in observable facts and measurable data to find recurring behavioural patterns t the
^oÁ_}(]vv]}voo]}v
- laid the foundations for Neo-Realism and Neo-Liberalism
Cosmopolitanism
-normative theorists try to clarify moral issues of international relations
-Chris Brown t µuu]Ìu]v}v}À]]v}^}u}}o]]v]u_v^}uuµv]]v]u_
-Cosmopolitanism t normative doctrine focuses on individuals and on the whole community of
humankind as the units of world politics
-communitarianism t focuses on political communities, especially nation-states as units of politics
One of the tasks of normative theory is determining which doctrine has priority
-many theorists t normative conflict cannot be resolved
Economic Liberalism
-emerged in late 16th and 17th vµÇ]v}v}Z^}À-Pµo]}v_}(Z}v}uÇÇZ
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-Key t individualized economic preferences lead to optimal levels of supply and demand both
domestically and internationally
-state should back-off as much as it can through both domestic regulations (subsides to preferred
]vµ]v}Pµo]}v~](([
-ideas connected to Free Trade and Comparative Advantage
-If country A & B produces both Wine & Wool, it serves both countries for A to focus on producing what
it produces better and import the other from B
-trade can be mutually profitable to both A and B
Epistemology
Globalization
-Spread of interconnection of economic, social, and cultural relations across international borders
-1.) Information is universally available in real time, simultaneously
-2.) Technology has tied countries & finical & banking centers together
-few countries or parts can remain insulated from financial shocks & changes
-3.) technology t pools resources and share financial risks on international scale
Hegemonic Stability Theory
-Hegemon t dominant military and economic power necessary for creation of liberal world market
economy
- --absence of power, liberal rules cannot be enforced
- Hegemonic Stability Theory t from mercantilist ideas on politics being in charge of economics
-liberal element t dominant power does not manipulate international economic relations for its own
sakes t creates open world economy based on free trade
---benefits all states not just Hegemon
- set forth by Charles Kindlebeiger & Robert Golpin
- risks that economic relations will deteriorate into nationalistic, self-]vµ]vPíõïì[
-America became a Hegemon after WW2
Liberalism
- positive view of nature compared to realists
-humans self-interested and competitive to a point
-reason can overcome drive for power & insecurity, that make the threat of conflict and war inevitable &
perpetual
-notion of progress focused on individual
---realists t state collective compromise to overcome security dilemma
---liberals t state agreement that protects individual rights & freedoms while facilitating co-operation
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Document Summary

Anarchy is a central concept in ir theory denoting the absence of an overarching governing authority in the international arena. This may be contrasted with the hierarchical structure of authority that characterizes the domestic arena. The relevance of anarchy varies among different schools of ir theory, but is generally discussed in terms of being a structural constraint upon the behavior of states. For example, the absence of a recognized third-party authority in a international territorial dispute will create different security risks and related expectations than would a similar dispute arising domestically. Realists (e. g. , morgenthau) and particularly neo-realists (e. g. , waltz) view anarchy as an ever-present structural constraint on ir that leads to a security dilemma and predictable political outcomes. Classical liberals (e. g. , wilson) see the spread of democracy and progress minimizing the effect of anarchy, while neo-liberals (e. g. , keohane) find similar hope in international institutions. Constructivists (e. g. , wendt) see states as much more active in defining the structural constraint of anarchy.

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