POLC09H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Small Arms And Light Weapons, International Atomic Energy Agency, Somalia Affair

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27 Feb 2013
States and international organizations
International institutions mitigate anarchy
States make strategic calculations on the basis of absolute gains
Cooperation is possible and desirable
An attack on one member of the group constitutes an attack on all members.
All members of the group are obligated to come to the defense of their ally.
Organizations are international institutions.
Rules and institutions reduce uncertainty and increase predictability
Lower transactions costs and increase cooperation
Peace -> trade and economic cooperation, int’l legal institutions, collective security institutions
From balance of power to collective security
BOP based on treaty alliances
CS based on creation of a formal, structure international institution that can enforce rules and
League of Nations
Formed after WWI
Intergovernmental collective security organization
aimed at maintain peace through collective security and disarmament
Outlawed aggression and offensive war
Stipulated collective action against aggressors
Collective security was aimed at preventing aggression
US develops it but fails to join
Member states dropped out, their interests favoured aggression
UN charter was signed by all member states after WWII
UN charter set CS clause, based on sovereign equality and territorial integrity
UNSC has ability to authorize the use of force to prevent aggression against other sovereign members
of the UN
Treaty of mutual defense of member states
Attack against one member is attack against all
Warsaw Pact
Signed as response to NATO
Treat of mutual defense of member states
Led by USSR
Sought to create a buffer against Western aggression
CS during decolonization
1960s was a world of rapid decolonization of 3rd world
newly independent states emerged as weak political entities
these states joined the UN and acquired the legal rights associated with sovereign statehood
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Shift to proxy war
MAD made direct confrontation risky during cold war
It was easier to find a local proxy to do the hard labour
With UNSC paralyzed, US and USSR fought most of their battles in poor countries
Fall of USSR
Warsaw pact is dissolved
Former soviet states in eastern Europe and central Asia undergo an economic and political transition
End of Cold war marks a period of optimism for UN
UN: Post cold war CS
Gulf war as test case of CS
Iraq invades Kuwait
Kuwait asks the UNSC to active CS measures
Bosnian War
Genocide in Europe backyard
Strategic interests meet historical memory
UN plays a weak peacekeeping role
NATO intervention was instrumental in ending the war
Afghan Mission
Attack on US triggered collective self-defense clause of the NATO agreement
Military and state-building operation in Afghanistan led by NATO-ISAF forces
African Union
Collective security institution mandated to “promote peace, security and stability on the continent”
Can sanction peacekeeping missions in cases of war
AU in Somalia: extensive financial training support from US/pushed out AS militia out of cities
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Destructiveness = deterrence
Limited offensive value, given potential retaliation and environmental damage
High defensive value for second-strike capabilities
BP in nuclear era
Nuclear weapons as internal balancing
Primary of defensive weapons in system
Stability within a bipolar context
- to compel an actor to comply by applying a
punishment on behaviour
A compels B when
- A imposes cost x on B after B has committed
action y and
- Cost x to B is greater that he gains to B from
action y
- to deter an actor from non-compliance by
threatening to impose a punishment on behaviour
A deters B when
- A threatens cost x on B if and only if B
commits action y and
- The cost x to B is greater than the gains to B
from action y
Nuclear weapons capabilities can deter states from conventional wars of aggression or interventions, out of
fear of severe retaliation
Proliferation creates stability through mutual deterrence
Proliferation creates opportunities for deadly
Neorealist model would predict that proliferation would create more stable balance of power in international
Bureaucratic politics model would predict that increased nuclear weapons would increase the probability of
accidents and crises
MAD Stalemate
Cold war MAD created a tense, but stable stalemate int’l system
At no point did a direct confrontation between the US and USSR or China occur
Most cold war fighting happened in the non-nuclear Third world
Cuban missile crisis
Brought world to brink of major nuclear war
Non proliferation treaty
Aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons technology
Signed by 190 countries including US, China, Russia
Pakistan, India, Israel didn’t sign
North Korea withdrew 2003
Proliferation in Pakistan and India
India first nuclear test was 1974
Pakistan launched test 1998 in response to India
North Korea Proliferation
NK was a signatory NPT but never ratified
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