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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLC99H3
Professor
R Rice

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POLC99
LECTURE 2 โ€“ Jan. 17
Latin America + Political Perspectives
TOPICS FOR TODAY
1)Pre-colonial society+ power structures
2)Conquest and colonial society
3)Independence to present day
โ€œI came to get gold, not till the soil like a peasantโ€ โ€“ Hernan Cortes, Conqueror of Mexico,
16th Century
1)Pre-colonial society + power structures
๎€Maya, Aztec and Inca (5-7 million people each). Their history is constantly being
revised as we learn more.
Maya
Location: Southern Mexico โ€“ Guatemala
Organization: Top down and authoritarian.
Known for: Scientific accomplishments
Aztec
Location: Mexicoโ€™s central valley region
Known for: military prowess, main capital cities.
Tenochtitlan: Now Mexico City (over 300 000 residents)
Organization: rigidly stratified, centralized power, absolute power at the top.
Inca
Location: Andes of south America
Known for: empire building
Inca -> semi-god, descendent of the sun god Intโ€™
Organization: highly centralized bureaucracy
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Decentralized Societies
Location: eg. Hunter and gatherer societies such as groups in the Amazonian rainforest and
Mapuche people of southern Chile.
Organization: Horizontal, based on kinship groupings.
Known for: successful resistance against Spanish colonization; 1641 treaty between Spain
and the Mapuche
๎€1810 independence
2)Conquest and Colonial Society
๎€30-70 million natives people prior to conquest
๎€700 spanish soldiers vs. 70 million natives
How did they do it?
1)Spaniards had latest armaments and technology (swords, horses, armour, etc.)
2)Now defunct: indigenous peoples saw the Spaniards as demi-gods.
3)Diseases eg. Smallpox (half of indigenous died from the conquest; mainly from
disease)
4)Spanish and Portuguese had honed their fighting skills in the 700 year reconquest of
Iberia from the Moors
5)Hierarchical and cruel nature of pre-conquest politics lead society to initially accept
Spanish leadership
6)Spaniards obtained allies among competing native groups
๎€Malinche: a Nahua (Aztec) women enslaved by Mayas and presented to Cortez.
Was Cortezโ€™s interpreter, advisor and mistress.
Colonial Society Legacies (1500-1800s)
1)People
๎€Indigenous peoples, Europeans and Africans
๎€Europeans were 2% of colonial population; Peninsulares (whites born in Spain),
Criollos or Creoles (whites born in Latin America)
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