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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Gibbs, Holly

Anarchy - Anarchy is a central concept in IR theory denoting the absence of an overarching governing authority in the international arena. - This may be contrasted with the hierarchical structure of authority that characterizes the domestic arena. - The relevance of anarchy varies among different schools of IR theory, but is generally discussed in terms of being a structural constraint upon the behavior of states. - For example, the absence of a recognized third-party authority in a international territorial dispute will create different security risks and related expectations than would a similar dispute arising domestically. - Realists (e.g., Morgenthau) and particularly neo-realists (e.g., Waltz) view anarchy as an ever-present structural constraint on IR that leads to a security dilemma and predictable political outcomes. - Classical liberals (e.g., Wilson) see the spread of democracy and progress minimizing the effect of anarchy, while neo-liberals (e.g., Keohane) find similarhope in international institutions. - Constructivists (e.g., Wendt) see states as much more active in defining the structural constraint of anarchy. Behaviouralism - More than just an IR theory, but a new method of studying IR - Theorists where from a new generation J trained in political science, economics, social sciences, mathematics rather than diplomatic history, international law or political philosophy - they used a more methological approach -Z}o]ZZ}Ko^oZ_}o]LZ}o}]LL]}nal relations - main task is to collect empirical data which can be used for measurement, classification, generalization and validation of hypothesis - more interested in observable facts and measurable data to find recurring behavioural patterns J the ^oZ_}]LL]}Loo]}LZ - laid the foundations for Neo-Realism and Neo-Liberalism Cosmopolitanism -normative theorists try to clarify moral issues of international relations -Chris Brown J ZKK]ZK]L }L}Z]Z]L}^ }ZK}}o]]L]ZK_L^ }KKL]]L]ZK_ -Cosmopolitanism J normative doctrine focuses on individuals and on the whole community of humankind as the units of world politics -communitarianism J focuses on political communities, especially nation-states as units of politics One of the tasks of normative theory is determining which doctrine has priority -many theorists J normative conflict cannot be resolved Economic Liberalism -emerged inlate 16 and 17 L]LZ}LZ}Z^}-2o]}L_}Z }L}KZZ
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