polb50 midterm; key terms

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Christopher Cochrane

politics A process of conflict resolution in which support is mobilized and maintained for collective action. power The ability to get other individuals to do as one wants them to do. POWER- probability of 1 actor in social relationship to carry out his will against and despite opposition and resistance. 1) Cohersion- person or agent imposes will on another with a) physical force, and or punishment fear of punishment. E.g. military intervention. cohersion compliance= war is politics by other means. 2) Legitimacy- impose own will on others because others believe it is right to obey listen and comply out of respect. Legitimate power is AUTHORITY. AUTHORITY- e.g. we dont cheat on taxes and cross red lights, because we recognize its wrong. However we wont listen to anything a cop might say. e.g. government is web of connections govt -> legislation -> head cop -> cop -> me I wont break law b/c of cop , cop wont abuse because of boss, boss wont mess up over losing budget and legislation will make fair decisions on budget b/c of government. Government- The set of institutions that make and enforce collective, public decisions for a society; and the group of people the prime minister and cabinet and their supporters in parliament who are currently charged to make decisions. EXECUTIVE- (CROWN) enforces law; e.g. makes people pay taxes THE SWORD LEGISLATIVE- Creates laws and policies- enacts laws and policies THE WILL JUDICIAL- Power to interpret the laws THE JUDGMENT Advocacy & pressure groups- various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion and policy; play important part in development in political and social system. Cleavages- are division of voters into voting blocs. They separate voters into advocates and adversaries on issues or voting for a party Interest group- Organizations whose members act together to influence public policy in order to promote their common interest Cultural hegemony- sociological concept that 1 social class can be ruled by another.. very Marxist. Social movement- group with common ideology who try to get together and achieve a goal. FEDERALISM- there is two distinct jurisdictions of political authority. Country wide federal government and 10 regionally based provincial governments. Lecture 1 5 APPROACHES TO POLITICS 1- Institutional approach- institutions and law vs. convention Rules of poli institutions and laws with structures. Institutional rules govern how ppl interact, decisions past affect today and vice versa. E.g. keyboard, theres new better way to have it but we dont do it b/c of PATH DEPENDENCE- even if new better we are used to old way, institutions guilty of this. 2- Poli soc approach ( 2 subsections) a) Pluralist approach- many people want money and groups have and many groups have share of it and power. pluralism The open competition of political interests. b) Marxist approach- only money key control means of production, state funds help banks and jobs, u.s. invaded Iraq over oil, looking out for American industry 3- Poli behavior approach Political psychology0 we understand relationship between individual and contexts that are influenced by motivation perception etc. we use cognitive and social explanations. Why do good people disagree? Core personality traits we have, these traits affect politics, genetics related to political spectrum Big 5- introversion, openness to experience, neuroticism, agreeableness, conccientiousness twin study more politically close. 4- Rational choice approach- microeconomics; Usually for social economic behavior. People want max benefit for minimal cost. Lecture 3 Constitution- body of rules that outline each part of govt, and say how to relate to each other, and how government relates to people. British and American constitution- American consititution was a federation; where as the british constitution was parliamentarian. ; however Canada blended the two, however more towards british. British was unwritten constitution; and carried many conventions, whereas American was written and didnt use conventions. e.g. GOVERNER GENERAL POSITION OF PM > ALL CONVENTIONS LOSE OF CONFIDENCE= RESIGN Inherited magna cart- king himself subject to law, no one can be subject to law if not breaking a law. First time monarch beneath law & Rule of l- you can do anything not illegal & Royalproclamation 176- European settlers can only take aboriginal land with permission from queen or govt. Cabinet (headed by P.M), committee within privee council. Responsible for administration of government and establishment of government policy. Part of the executive structure run by privee council, P.M. filled with ministers- members of cabinet in charge of portfolio.Confidence- when the vote is taken in the cabinet . occurs during a government bill- introduced by government itself; M.P. is required to vote with government. If not they will get expelled from party. MATTER OF CONFIDENCE VOTE- IF LOSE MUST RESIGN. Two types of bills Private member bill- M.P introduces alone, and House of Commons argues it. There is free vote and no need to follow what government wants Government bill- introduced by government itself; M.P. is required to vote with government. If not they will get expelled from party. MATTER OF CONFIDENCE VOTE- IF LOSE MUST RESIGN. Minority government- introducing bill and are defeated by opposing party- the lose vote of confidence, this happened in 1979 when conservatives lost budget vote. Legislative union- "Two kinds of union have been proposed - federal and legislative. By the first, the separate legislature of each province would be preserved in its present form and retain almost all its present attributes of internal legislation, the federal legislature exercising no power save in those matters which may have been expressly ceded to it by the constituent provinces. A legislative union would imply a complete incorporation of the provinces included in it under one legislature, exercising universal and sole legislative authority over all of them in exactly the same manner as the Parliament legislates alone for the whole of the British Isles ." Each type of union had its advocates in the Confederation negotiations at Quebec in 1864. A legislative union was strongly favoured by John A. Macdonald in the Confederation conferences,
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