MID-TERM STUDY GUIDE POLB90
“Although the modernization and dependency approached disagree on some major points, both of these
perspectives contribute more or less equally to our understanding of the conditions in global south
Modernization and dependency theory, claim to understand the conditions of the South. They look at the problem of
development through the eyes of the Western world, and this causes them to design policies for development that do not
necessarily keep in mind the array of different problems that exists within each and every nation within the global south, which can
ultimately exacerbate the problems of the Third World.
Body paragraph 1:
The development of underdevelopment- Andre Gunder Frank
Argues that theoretical development policies follow a strictly European and North American viewpoint
Ignores the experience of those who were colonized
Our ignorance of the underdeveloped countries histories leads us to assume that their past and indeed their present
resembles earlier stages of the history of the now developed countries
Failure to explain the structure of the capitalist system and the effects it has had in promoting underdevelopment
Frank presents a theory of modernization that is based on a global relation of economic domination and exploitation, or what he
calls “metropolis-satellite relations.”
Frank’s primary points of reference are Latin American countries, which occupy a satellite position in relation to their
Iberian colonial metropoles.
o Frank argues that underdevelopment arises out of this metropolis-satellite relation because it is essentially a
hierarchical relation of extraction and expropriation which then becomes generalized on a global scale.
o Underdevelopment is not an effect of isolation and inertia, but rather, as Frank argues, “was and still is generated
by the very same historical process which also generated economic development: the development of capitalism
Body paragraph 2:
The Passing of Traditional Society- Daniel Lerner
o Daniel Lerner is one of the key proponents of the modernisation theory, which says that the rest of the world
should follow the Western concept of modernity to achieve development.
Attached to this modernity is a distinctive personality. To be a modern individual, one must be able to empathise with
o Lerner argues those who cannot see themselves in the shoes of others will not develop.
The Change to Change: Modernization, Development and Politics - Samuel Huntington
Huntington criticizes the modernization theory, arguing that its argument about economic change and development being
the prime factors responsible for the creation of stable, democratic political systems is flawed.
o The focus on economic development has helped fuel the ongoing cycle of instability within these countries due to
a lack of focus on political development
Economic development and Political development are two goals independent of each other MID-TERM STUDY GUIDE POLB90
“Ideas about what development means, or should mean, have b