Final - PLATO.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Andy Lee

PLATO – THE REPUBLIC Justice (dikaiosune)  main topic introduce by Cephalus - introduced major topic of ‘justice’ via talk of old age - who fears death & afterlife → compels evaluation of own life: whether unjust to anyone  Thrasymachus - Sophist who Plato uses to redirect argument of Republic by having him accuse Socrates of trickery & deceit:  to illustrate shortcomings of elenchus (Socratic method of reasoning by questioning) in analysis of justice b/c relies uncritically on own intuitive beliefs (which are misleading & unauthentic) programmed into us by gov  doesn’t get us closer to truth - defines justice kreitton (advantage of the stronger)  our justice = uniform b/c shaped by powerful; no independent standard to evaluate  rulers favor own interest, rather than interest of ruled  just man rewards less than unjust b/c more powerful unjust man always pleonexia (outdo) less powerful just man - Plato challenges: craft-analogy  = ruling is kind of craft techne  craftsmen not motivated by self-interest, seek advantage of their crafts not selves (e.g. doctors & medicine)  ruling as craft = care for subject :. ruler mustn’t seek own advantage  injustice:  more profitable than justice b/c leads to more rewards  justice = high-minded simplicity  reason ppl aren’t completely unjust is b/c afraid of suffering injustice  = virtue b/c serves as necessary function for soul to live happy :. just person is a happy person - functions argument: certain virtues necessary for a thing to perform designated function (i.e. virtue of sight for eyes to see) :. virtues needed for soul to function (i.e. ruling, deliberating)  if deprived of virtues, cannot perform  justice = 1 virtue of soul :. required for soul to live well - unity of virtues: wisdom, courage, moderation, justice → if have 1, have all  = goods 1. intrinsic = valued in itself for own sake, irrespective of outcome; even bad consequences attached, existence of good itself is enough to justify valuing it 2. instrumental = valued not for itself, but for positive consequences that result (i.e. physical training b/c produces good health) 3. (justice is) combination = value justice b/c intrinsically valuable, also b/c is attached to desirable rewards & consequences (Gyge’s ring)  magical artifact granted owner power of invisibility at will  if owned, would one steal, cheat, commit criminal acts  no one ever wants to be just, only unwillingly b/c forced by bad consequences - Form of the Good  ultimate object of knowledge & from the Good things that are just gain their usefulness & value  humans compelled to pursue the Good, but none can do successfully without philosophical reasoning  forms cannot be perceived by human senses, must be seen through the mind's eye  justice, truth, equality, beauty & others ultimately derive from Form of the Good.  soul: just city (each class performs own designated function) = just man (3 parts of soul perform own function) City Soul Guardians ↔ Rational Auxiliars ↔ thumos Workers, $-makers ↔ Appetitive  typology of souls & constitutions When the souls of people who The constitutional form of the city is: inhabit such a city are governed by: Virtue Philosopher-Kingship (if ruled by one rational part of the soul philosopher-king) Aristocracy (if ruled by more than one philosopher-king) Vice Timocracy (timé honor) – rule of the spirited part of the soul (thumos) honor-loving auxiliaries) Vice Oligarchy (oligoi the few) – rule of the appetitive part of the soul - wealthy few necessary appetites Vice Democracy (demos the masses) – rule of appetitive part of the soul the poor masses/people -unnecessary & lawful appetites Vice Tyranny (tyrannos) – the tyrant appetitive part of the soul -unnecessary & unlawful appetites - 3 proofs justice more profitable than injustice: 1. rank typology of cities/souls according to virtues & vices,  best = philosopher-kingship (aristocracy)  happiest city = most just 2. 3 diff pleasures correspond to 3 diff parts of soul  only philosopher has experienced all 3  $-maker has no need/desire to experience philosophical pleasures of soul 3. most never have full experience of true pleasures of soul, only experience pain to absence to pain  true pleasure only experience by 1 w/ total virtue  thus never want life of tyrant, most unjust & grounded in illegitimate pleasures  highest pleasure only experience by living life of virtue/justice - justice = doing one’s own work; injustice (civil war)= exchanging & meddling btw classes  Myth of the metals - contends that all citizens of the city were born out of the earth  each citizen has certain metal mixed in his soul  most fit to rule = gold  auxiliaries = silver  producers = bronze/iron. - city must never be ruled by someone whose soul is mixed w/ wrong metal  according to oracle, city will be ruined if that happens - persuades ppl to be patriotic - iron/bronze types → life of $-making; gold/silver → life of virtue & order Philosopher-King  philosophers are the best (aristoi) :. aristocracy = rule as kings  philosophy is what makes one best suited to rule  kallipolis only exist when philosophers rule as kings  leading genuinely & adequately philosophize, until political power & philosophy entirely coincide  problems with theory:  true ph
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