PSYA01H3 Study Guide - Corneal Reflex, Experimental Psychology, Clinical Psychology

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Published on 17 Jun 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
PSYA01 MIDTERM NOTES
CHAPTER 1
Psychology - Scientific study of the causes of behaviour; also the application of findings of
psychological research to the solution of problems
Causal event - Event that causes another even to occur
Physiological psychology - Branch of psychology that studies the physiological basis of
behaviour
Comparative psychology - Branch of psychology that studies the behaviours of a variety
of organisms in an attempt to understand the adaptive and functional significance of the
behaviours and their relation to evolution
Behaviour Analysis - Branch of psychology that studies the effect of the environment on
behaviour primary, the effects of the consequences of behaviours on the behaviour
themselves
Behaviour genetic - Branch of psychology that studies the role of genetics in behaviour
Cognitive psychology - Branch of psychology that studies complex behaviours and mental
processes such as perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept
formation, and problem solving
Cognitive neuroscience - Branch of psychology that attempts to understand cognitive
psychological functions by studying the brain mechanism
Developmental psychology - Branch of psychology that studies the changes in
behavioural, perceptual, and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and
experience
Social psychology - Branch of psychology devoted to the study of the effects people have
on each others behaviour
Personality psychology - Branch of psychology that attempts to categorize and
understand the causes of
individuals differences in patterns of behaviour
Evolutionary psychology - Branch of psychology that explains behaviour in terms of
adaptive advantages that specific behaviours provided during the evolution of a species.
Evolutionary psychologists use natural selection as a during principle
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Cross-cultural psychology - Branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on
behaviour
Clinical psychology - Branch of psychology devoted to the investigation and treatment of
abnormal
Animism - Belief that all animals and all moving objects possess spirits providing their
motive force
Reflex - Automatic response to a stimulus, such as the blink reflex to the sudden
unexpected approach of an object toward the eyes
Dualism - Philosophical belief that reality consists of mind and matter
Model - Relatively simple system that works on known principles and is able to do at least
some of the things that a more complex system can do
Empiricism - Philosophical view that all knowledge is obtained through the senses
Materialism - Philosophical belief that reality can be known only through an
understanding of the
physical world, of which the mind is a part
Doctrine of specific nerve energies - Johannes Mullers obersavation that different
never fibres convey specific information from one part of the body to the brain of from the
brain to one part of the body
Experimental ablation - Removal or destruction of a portion of the brain of an
experimental animal for the purpose of studying the functions of that region
Psychophysics - Branch of psychology that measures the quantitative relation between
physical stimuli and perceptual experience
Determinism - Doctrine that behaviour is the result of prior events
Law of effect - Thorndikes observation that stimuli that occur as a consequence of a
response can increase or decrease the likelihood of making that response again
Structuralism - System of experimental psychology that began with Wundt; it emphasized
the introspective analysis of sensation and perception
Introspection - Literally, looking within; in an attempt to describe ones own memories,
perceptions, cognitive, processes, or motivation
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Functionalism - Strategy of understanding a species structural or behaviour features by
attempting to establish their usefulness with respect to survival and reproductive success
Behaviourism - Movement in psychology that asserts that the only proper subject matter
for scientific study in psychology is observable behaviours
Humanistic psychology - Approach to the study of human behaviour that emphasizes
human experience, choice, and creativity, slef-realization, and positive growth
Gestalt psychology - Movement in psychology that emphasized that cognitive processes
could be understood by studying their organization, not their elements
Information processing - Approach used by cognitive psychologist to explain the working
of the brain; information received through the senses is processed by systems of neurons in
the brain
CHAPTER 2
Scientific method - Set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained
through observational studies or experiments
Naturalistic observation - Observation of the behaviour of people or other animals in
their natural environments
Clinical observation - Observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing
diagnosis or treatment
Correlational study - Examination of relations between two or more measurements of
behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals
Experiment - Study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable
and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of a dependent variable. Only
experiments can confirm the existence of cause-and-effect relations among variables
Hypothesis - Statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment that tentatively
expresses a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more events
Theory - Set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena; more encompassing
than a hypothesis
Case study - Detailed description of an individuals behaviour during the course of clinical
treatment or diagnosis
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Document Summary

Psya01 m i d ter m notes. Psychology - scientific study of the causes of behaviour; also the application of findings of psychological research to the solution of problems. Causal event - event that causes another even to occur. Physiological psychology - branch of psychology that studies the physiological basis of behaviour. Comparative psychology - branch of psychology that studies the behaviours of a variety of organisms in an attempt to understand the adaptive and functional significance of the behaviours and their relation to evolution. Behaviour analysis - branch of psychology that studies the effect of the environment on behaviour primary, the effects of the consequences of behaviours on the behaviour themselves. Behaviour genetic - branch of psychology that studies the role of genetics in behaviour. Cognitive psychology - branch of psychology that studies complex behaviours and mental processes such as perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation, and problem solving.