Study Guides (258,756)
CA (124,993)
UTSC (8,100)
Psychology (1,886)
PSYA01H3 (210)

Chp 2 Notes

3 Pages
74 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Chapter 2
Scientific Method: A set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained
through observation
xScientists of all disciplines report the details of their research methods in sufficient detail
that other investigators can repeat, or replicate, the research.
Replication: Repetition of an experiment or observational study to see whether previous
results will be obtained. One of the greatest strengths of science. It ensures erroneous
results and incorrect conclusions are weeded out.
Hypothesis: A statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment, that tentatively
expresses a cause- and-effect relationship btw two or more events. The starting point of
any study. It is an idea, phrased as a general statement, that a scientist wishes to test
through scientific research. Occur to scientists as a result of accumulated research and
scholarship.
Theory: A set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena; more encompassing
than a hypothesis. Describes and explains known facts, proposes relations among variables,
and makes new predictions. Generates a testable hypotheses (hypotheses that can be
proven or supported by sci research)
xScientists either manipulate or measure the values of variables to help evaluate hypotheses.
Manipulation: Setting the values of an independent variable in an experiment to see
whether the value of another variable is affected.
Experimental group: A group of participants in an experiment, the members of which are
exposed to a particular value of the independent variable, which has been manipulated by
the researcher.
Control group: A comparison group used in an experiment, the members of which are
exposed to the naturally occurring or zero value of the independent variable.
Nominal fallacy: The false belief that one has explained the causes of a phenomenon by
identifying and naming it; for example, believing that one has explained lazy behaviour by
attributing it to "laziness".
xClassifying only prepares us to examine and discover events that cause a behaviour.
xCauses for behaviour could be internal or external events. Some events are causal and
others are completely unrelated to the behaviour.
xParticular variables need to be selected when designing an experiment
Operational definition: The definition of a variable in terms of operations the researcher
performs to measure or manipulate it. Independent and dependent variables are defined
in terms of this, a researcher performs to set their values/ measure them
xResearcher must provide others with a thorough and adequate description of the
procedures used to manipulate the independent variable and to measure the dependent
variable.
Confounding of variables: If there are extra, unwanted variables that vary synchronously
with the intended independent variables, the researcher won't be able to distinguish the
effects of any one of them on the dependent variables. The effects of the variables will be
confounded. No valid conclusion can be made.
Counterbalancing: A systematic variation of conditions in an experiment, such as the order
of presentation of stimuli, so that different participants encounter them in different orders;
prevents confounding of independent variables with time-dependent processes such as
habituation or fatigue.
xIf a measurement is objective than anyone could follow the procedure and obtain the same
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 2 Scientific Method: A set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observation N Scientists of all disciplines report the details of their research methods in sufficient detail that other investigators can repeat, or replicate, the research. Replication: Repetition of an experiment or observational study to see whether previous results will be obtained. One of the greatest strengths of science. It ensures erroneous results and incorrect conclusions are weeded out. Hypothesis: A statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment, that tentatively expresses a cause- and-effect relationship btw two or more events. The starting point of any study. It is an idea, phrased as a general statement, that a scientist wishes to test through scientific research. Occur to scientists as a result of accumulated research and scholarship. Theory: A set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena; more encompassing than a hypothesis. Describes and explains known facts, proposes relations among variables, and makes new predictions. Generates a testable hypotheses (hypotheses that can be proven or supported by sci research) N Scientists either manipulate or measure the values of variables to help evaluate hypotheses. Manipulation: Setting the values of an independent variable in an experiment to see whether the value of another variable is affected. Experimental group: A group of participants in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to a particular value of the independent variable, which has been manipulated by the researcher. Control group: A comparison group used in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to the naturally occurring
More Less
Unlock Document


Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit