PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Albert Bandura, John Bowlby, Psychoanalysis

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26 Jan 2013
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PSYA02 NOTES
Chapter 10
Psycholinguistics: a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behavior
Auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds
themselves
Using MRI scans, Berlin found that some regions of the brain responded more when people
heard human vocalizations than when they heard only natural sounds large difference were
located in the temporal lobe, on the auditory cortex
Phoneme: the minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language (p-i-n)
Voice on set time: delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of
the vocal cords (delay of voicing for pa is about 0.06 second)
Phonemic discriminations begin with auditory processing of the sensory differences, occurs in
both hemispheres; regions of the left auditory cortex seem to specialize in recognizing special
aspects of speech
Phoneme combined to form morpheme: the smallest unit of language (fast-est)
All languages have syntax, grammar
Syntax; synthesis comes from the Greek world syntassein “to put together”
Syntactical rule: a grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form
phrases, clauses and sentences; learned implicitly
Function word: a preposition, article or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a
sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structure
Content word: a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb that conveys meaning
Syntactical cues are signaled by word order, word class, function and content words, affixes,
word meanings and prosody
Affix: a sound or group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word (prefix) or its end
(suffix) eg. Dropp-ed, bright-ly
Semantics: the meanings and the study of the meanins represented by words
Prosody: the use of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides
that specified by the particular words; an important means of communication of emotion; use of
stress, rhythm and changes in speech
Deep structure: the essential meaning of a sentence, without regard to the grammatical
features (surface structure) of the sentence that are needed to express it in words
Surface structure: the grammatical features of a sentence
Scripts: the characteristics (events, rules, and so on) that are typical of a particular situation;
assists with the comprehension of verbal discourse (I learned a lot about the bars in town
yesterday, do you have an aspirin?)
Broca’s aphasia: severe difficulty in articulating words slow, laborious, non fluent speech,
especially function words, caused by damage that includes Broca’s area, a region of the frontal
cortex on the left (speech dominant) side of the brain
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Agrammatism: a language disturbance; difficulty in the production and comprehension of
grammatical features, such as proper use of function words, word endings, and word order.
Often seen in cases of Broca’s aphasia
Wernicke suggested that Broca’s area contains motor memories – memories of the sequences
that are needed to articulate words
Wernicke’s area: a region of the auditory association cortex located in the upper part of the left
temporal lobe; involved in the recognition of spoken words
Wernicke’s aphasia: a disorder caused by damage to the left temporal and parietal cortex,
including Wernicke’s area; characterized by deficits in the perception of speech and by the
production of fluent but rather meaningless speech, few content words are used, receptive
aphasia
Unlike Broca’s aphasia, speech associated the Wernicke’s aphasia is fluent and unlaboured the
person does not strain to articulate words and appear to be searching for them
Pure word deafness: the ability to hear, to speak and usually to write, without being able to
comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by bilateral temporal lobe damage, restricted to
Wernicke’s area
Isolation aphasia: a language disturbance that includes an inability to comprehend speech or to
produce meaningful speech, accompanied by the ability to repeat speech and to learn new
sequences of words; caused by brain damage to the left temporal/parietal cortex that spares
Wernicke’s area
Autopanomia: “poor naming of one’s own topography” – damage to other regions of the brain
can disrupt particular categories of meaning in speech
Meaning is a joint function of syntax and semantics
Fixation: a brief interval between saccadic eye movements during which the eye does not move;
visual information is gathered during this time (average fixation lasts 250 milliseconds)
Phonetic reading: reading by decoding the phonetic significance of the letter strings; “sound
reading”
Whole-word reading: reading by recognizing a word as a whole; “sight reading”; faster than
phonetic decoding
Surface Dyslexia: a reading disorder in which people can read words phonetically but have
difficulty reading irregularly spelled words by the whole word method
Phonological Dyslexia: a reading disorder in which people can read familiar words but have
difficulty reading unfamiliar words or pronounceable non-words because they cannot sound out
the words
Dyslexia: “faulty reading” all caused by damage to the left parietal lobe or left temporal lobe
Patients with transcortical sensory aphasia can repeat what is said to them even though they
show no signs of understanding what they hear or say
Direct dyslexia: a language disorder caused by brain damage in which people can read words
aloud without understanding them
Semantic priming: a facilitating effect on the recognition of words having meanings related to a
word that was presented previously
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Most linguists have concluded that the ability to learn language is innate
Linguists have proposed that a child’s brain contains a “language acquisition device” which
embodies rules of “universal grammar”
Children learning a language make hypotheses about the grammatical rules they need to follow.
These hypotheses have confirmed or disconfirmed by the speech they hear
An innate language acquisition device guides children’s hypothesis formation. Because of this,
there are sentences they will never utter
Language acquisition device makes reinforcement unnecessary; the device provides the
motivation for the child to learn a language
Critical time period for learning a language. Works best during childhood; after childhood,
languages are difficult to learn
Most researchers have supposed that alteration occurs after children begin to learn the
meanings of words at around 10 to 12 months of age
First words of a child soft like a in father or consonants such as p and b
Nasality converts consonants p or b into m
Protowords: unique strings of phonemes that serve word-like functions
Child directed speech: the speech of an adult directed toward a child; differs in important
features from adult-directed speech and tends to facilitate learning of language by children
Inflection: a change in the form of a word (usually by adding a suffix) to denote a grammatical
feature such as tense or number
Content words are used first by babies, then verbs
Irregular verbs are used first because they get used more often than regular ones
Overgeneralization errors: errors in language that occur when learners produce incorrect words
or statements based on other rules of language
Overextension: the use of a word to denote a larger class of items than is appropriate; for
example, referring to the moon as a ball
Underextension: the use of a word to denote a smaller class of items than is appropriate; for
example, referring only to one particular animal as a dog
Caregivers often correct children’s overextensions. Most effective type of instruction occurs
when an adult provides the correct label and points out the features that distinguish the object
from the one with which the child has confused it
Chapter 11
Intelligence: general term used to refer to a person’s ability to learn and remember information,
to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behavior in
an adaptive way
Differential approach: an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests
that identify and measure individual differences in people’s knowledge and abilities to solve
problems (Jean Piaget)
Developmental approach: an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children
learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world
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