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Final

Psych A02 Exam Notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Study Guide
Final

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PSYCH MIDTERM NOTES
Chapter #10 – Language
Lecture 2 & 3
Sentence – words (grammar), Morphemes (meanings), Phonemes (sounds)
Phonemes – the individual sounds of a word – Created by tongue and lip movements
Morphemes – meanings (parts) of each word, groups of Phonemes
Bibabial Plosives – both lips involved in producing a phoneme, explosive sound, holding lips and
releasing
Alveolar Fricatives – friction sound, vibrating, tongue is up
Lexicon/Vocab.
- Lexical item is are not words in vocabulary
- High school students know 60 000 words
- University students know 120 000 words
Content Words (have meaning) vs. Function Words (sentence building words)
Syntax/Grammar – words put together in sentences
Language is symbolic, has structure, “the last bastion of human uniqueness”, language is
learned
Lecture #4
Language is on the left side of the brain – works more for men > women
Wernicke’s Area – Organizes words, hears the sound first
Broca’s Area – Plan to produce speech, thoughts
Motor Cortex – Actual sounds and words come out
Aphasia – Problems of speech
Non-fluent aphasias – product of speech, problem
Fluent aphasias – problem of understanding speech
Broca’s Aphasia – Laborious speech agrammatism – no production or comprehension of complex
grammar, no function
Comprehension – recognizing sequences of sounds and words
Wernicke’s Aphasia – (receptive aphasia) – poor comprehension, produce fluent gibberish, +
function – content
Stuttering – disfluencies of speech at the motor end of speech production
- Patterns differ, caused by emotional problems, and a lot of other causes aren’t known
Lecture #5
Autism – deviant social development
- Delayed and unusual language development
- Repetitive and ritualistic behavior
- Causes of Autism = Vaccines
- Overflow behavior = flapping arms etc. not necessary
- Lifelong condition
ABA – applied Behavior Analysis
- Analyzing what activities trigger autistic behavior
- Seeing triggers and avoiding them in the classroom

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IBI – intensive behavioral Intervention
- Therapist spends time with the child
- Respond and feel like a normal kid
Asperger Syndrome
- Poor social skills
- Poor non verbal cues
- Preoccupation with a particular subject of interest
- Over sensitivity to senses
- Vocabulary can be very rich
- Higher or average IQ
- Exceptional skills in a specific area of knowledge
Tourettes Syndrome – neurological disorders by tics – involuntary and uncontrollable sudden
movements or sounds
- Cursing, uttering, obscenities and ethnic slurs in 15% of cases
- Usually diagnosed before 18
- Abnormal levels of neurotransmitter dopamine (perhaps others like serotin)
- Medication can help control symptoms
- Therapy helps patient and copes with social impact
Chapter #11 – Intelligence
Lecture 6
Autism Savant Syndrome – low IQ with an exceptional particular area (specialized subject)
G factor = general intelligence
S factor = specific intelligence
Factor Analysis – method of assessing people’s performance on a number of different cognitive
tasks relevant to intelligence
WAIS Subtests – different factors for intelligence
- Three factors: Verbal Ability, Short term, and special
The modern Stanford – Binet test
- New factor = quantitive ability
Lecture 7
Verbal reasoning, quantitive reasoning, abstract visual reasoning, short-term working memory =
Stanford-Binet Test
1938 7 Factors of intelligences
- Verbal comprehension
- Verbal fluency
- Number
- Spatial visualization
- Memory
- Reasoning
- Perceptual speed
Cattell compressed the 7 factors of Thurstone
Fluid intelligence – ability to see relations and patterns
Crystallized Intelligence – accumulated life knowledge
Howard Gardner’s theory – popular in intelligence – not based on Factor Analysis
Eight types of intelligence
- Logical/Mathematical
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- Linguistic
- Spatial
- Naturalist
- Musical
- Bodily – Kinesthetic
- Intrapersonal awareness
- Interpersonal awareness
Nurture vs. Nature – Heredity (from parents) or Nature (they way they were brought up)
Chapter 12 – Life-Span Development
Child Development
Infancy to old age
- Physical development
- Perceptual and Cognitive Development – how babies see death vs old people
- Emotional and Social Development – attachment to parents
Conception – zygote (cell divides) – billions of cells connect and make connections call synapsis
Nothing in the brain is random, they are all organized
If a neuron connection is not used, they lose them
Neuroplasticity – connections don’t die, they lose strength
Memory at a psychological level – memory loss
APGAR Test
- Activity (arms and legs or active)
- Pulse (-100bpm or +100bpm)
- Grimace (reflexes) (grimace or sneeze/cough)
- Appearance (skin color) (blue/grey or natural)
- Respiration (slow, irregular or good, crying)
Movement development in infancy – breathing, swallowing, sucking
Reflexes - all should disappear after 5 months
- rooting – turning head in direction of touch
- Grasp/Palmer – palm closed when it is touched
- Stepping – legs take steps when feet touch surface
- Moro/Startle – spreading arms when let go
- Babinski – toes curl when sole is pushed
- Swimming – (paddling/kicking) when facedown above water
Failure of these reflexes = brain damage)
Lecture 9 & 10
Early Developmental Processes, Some processes are fundamental
Maturation (genetic program for growth) – physical, emotional, social
Nativist Position – language is born
Imitation (essential for learning) not always positive
Practice (essential for refinement and consolidation)
Habituation (promotes novel exploration) – getting used to certain surroundings
- Dishabituation – noticing a common item and difference when another one is introduced
Critical periods – certain skills have to be achieved by a certain period of time. If it is missed you
may never learn it again
Language is programmed – we can pick it up easily
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