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Midterm

Lecture notes for most classes from after midterm


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Study Guide
Midterm

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Lecture 18- Feb 18
What shapes personality? Things that happen to us early in years like in childhood shape
who we’ve become.
Psychodynamics psychological trauma carried on often from childhood
Freuds idea the use of psychic energy to regulate our personal affairs, they way we feel
about and so on.
Each one of us has 3 important elements ourselves that determine what we do and how
we think.
3 elements:
The id: where all our personal impulses/motivations are caused. Like if you want
something you have to have it. It provides motivation to satisfy the desire for pleasure.
Functions on the basis of the pleasure principle. Ex. Sexual desire, hunger.
The ego: the rational part of our self. Ex.If I grab someone because I’m horny I’ll go to
jail.” Ego functions on the basis of the reality principle.
Superego: Both conscious and unconscious. Based on rules and moral.
Ego and superego are more conscious but not completely conscious.
Consciousness is tip of the iceberg. Ego and superego stick up above water which is
conscious. Then we have the narrow base composed of id that’s not conscious.
Using too much energy, dealing with conflict that’s why its important for Freud to
analyze why people act the way they do in terms of ego and superego.
Define Mechanisms are used by us when something is very upsetting that can’t be faced
or accepted.
Prior to Freud one of the reasons he was impacted was because we tended to think of
people as being conscious rational beings.
Repression: person with problem pushes back to unconsciousness. Taking it out of your
mind. Repression takes energy. When you repress really heavy things then they can lead
to mental problems later on in life. Ex. Kid jealous of other kid, he then says no I’m okay
I’m not jealous, he’s okay.
Reaction Formation: Essentially flipping the feeling we have in our head. Ex. Trying to
make the issue positive. There’s still intensity and such but now it’s more positive.
Projection: where individual takes his or her negative feelings and projects them on
someone else.
Sublimation: take energy that comes from conflict and spend it on other activities.
Rationalization: when we find good reasons for what we do and how we feel. Happens
after the fact. Ex. You accidently trip someone, you tell them sorry. This is rationalizing
after the fact.
Conversion: Conflict converts into often a thing of manifestation. Ex. Think of first born
realizing every time he has headache parents pay attention to him and ignore other child.
Then they start doing it that sometimes they don’t know whether the headache is real or
not.
Freud believed that individuals go through psychosexual development.
His theory states that individual gets gratification through various sensations.. Ex.
Sucking on bottle (this is oral stage). Then its pooing, feels good then relieve after (this is
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anal stage). Then with touching clitoris/penis it feels good (phallic stage), genital phase
when kid realizes they can get gratification through genitals.
What happens in childhood at beginning (psychosexual development) is very important
and shapes our lives, it can’t be changed.
Anal personality is not the same as being an asshole as a person.
Anal to worried about things because of the early childhood experiences having to do
with toilet training.
Narcissistwill get involved with people who will love them care for them and give
them the emotion that they need.
Maslow argues our needs are organized in hierachy.
Psychology-March 7,2011-Lec 18-Chapter 15
Helping
Video on Bystander Apathy
Had a person pretend to steal a ladies purse to see if anyone helps but nobody does. Most
people just look around but nobody actually attempts to help.
Another thing is done where a guy pretends to have a heart attack to see if anyone helps
him, but only one guy stops to help him, by checking his pulse.
We also saw that there was a murder case where a women was stabbed numerous
amounts of time but nobody stopped it. It was outside a building and people clearly saw it
because there were lights turned on and windows closed but nobody even attempted to
call the police at least.
Look at slide 21the steps to helping. Sometimes people don’t make it to the step of
helping because they assume someone else will help and in the end, for the most part,
nobody does.
Diffusion of responsibility- if you have a lot of people in a situation people will say “why
me? Other people will help”
Pluralistic Ignorance-A lot of people trying to get information about what to do, but
nobody knows what to do.
Ex. Guy in video who makes the excuse that he doesn’t help the guy pretending to have a
heart attack because he was moving, he just didn’t want to help.
Some people wont help because nobody else is helping.
People are influences by others, they look around nobody is helping so they don’t help.
Costing- Ex. If you were watching a show and heard someone screaming outside you
don’t help them because you don’t want to miss your show. That is how cost works.
Changing topic now to self
The self is the way we perceive ourselves and by others.
What role does memory play in providing the “glue for the self?
Many aspects of our personality, such as our self-esteem, and sense of efficacy and
control are based in our self-concept.
Video-The Self Without Memory
Guy who gets into accident and losses his memory and somewhat of his personality.
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He has no memories.
Everyone is continuously new to him. The guys name is Kent.
Memory allows us to tie together all the moment of time and life.
Memory is both fragile and important.
He hasn’t lost all his memory. He uses semantic memory to do Dewey decimal system of
books and procedural memory to organize himself. (He works at library).
Can you still have your personality with the loss of memory that shapes your personality?
You abstract from information of your behaviour to determine it.
Lecture 19-March 9, 2011
Looking at slide 28
AB, AB Listener and speaker. Speaker will talk and listener will look at them and be
attentive, and vice versa.
A looks away, B looks at speaker, then there is a pause, B looks away and A looks at
listener
Cognitively you need to put things into speech, unless you have distractions.
Speaker looks away from speaker at a certain extent to avoid listener.
No one knows how speech is individually produced, it’s a total mystery
Slide 29
Emblems(me winking)thinks you can find in dictionary. nonverbal gestures that have
meanings in certain cultures. ex.”ok”sign, head nods, shrugs, winks, and fingers
Illustrators ex. giving directions, your using nonverbal gestures. you can find
illustrators in dictionary.
backchannel communication useful in guiding communication. backchannel
communication is when you make comments like “yes and “right when listening to
someone talk.
Slide 30
Begins with the assertion that every social interaction is characterized by an appropriate
level of intimacy.
Many behaviours related to physical intimacy.
Distance between people, topic of the conversation, amount of smiling, amount of eye
contact.
When we interact with others, we adjust all these intimate behaviours so they adjust to a
particular situation or interaction.
Video on Nonverbal Communication
Degree of liking/disliking
degree of dominance/submisovnise in relationship
same verbal meaning can display different messages
ex. you could say good morning to a hot guy friendly and then good morning to someone
annoying in a rude way.
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