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1-6__


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 1
Personality Traits are general internal comparative dispositions we attribute to people to sort out meaningful behaviour
and account for consistencies
Use self report questionnaires
Traits = sketch out personality
Traits determine things like personality and behaviour across situations
Big 5 OCEAN chart on page 7
oOpenness to Experience
oConscientiousness
oExtraversion
oAgreeableness
oNeuroticism
Outline, need to go beyond dispositional traits
Move beyond dispositional into contextualized aspects such as time place and role: Characteristic Adaptation
CAs are contextualized facets of psychological individuality that speak to motivational, cognitive and developmental
concerns in personality
Three categories of characteristic adaptations:
oHuman Motivation: what do people want or desire in life?
oCognition and personality: cognitive factors – values, beliefs, expectancies, schemas, plans, personal
constructs, cognitive styles in human individuality
oDevelopmental theories: the evolution of the self and the relationships from birth to old age
Traits, adaptations and life story
Life story is an internalized evolving narrative of self that integrates the reconstructed past, perceived present and
anticipated future to provide life with a sense of unity and purpose.
Starting from adolescence people being to think of their lives as stories to rewrite and revise
Traits, adaptations and stories
Chart on page 11
Traits fill out outline, adaptations fill them in, life stories speak to what a human life means overall
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Scientific method: unsystematic observation, building theories, evaluating propositions
oWhen evaluating propositions, two methods of scientific examination are mainly used: correlation design
(how they relate) and experimental design (manipulate IV to measure
DV)
History of Modern Personality Psychology:
(1) 1930-1950, period of developing general systems and grand theories of personality
(2) 1950-1970, period of refining measurement techniques and elaborating personality constructs
(3) 1970-Today, period that began with a crisis concerning the legitimacy of personality studies and developed into the present
sense of renewal and invigoration in the field of personality psychology
Personality psychology focuses on psychological individuality, enduring characteristics, individual differences in adult
hood, and its look at normal healthy psychological functioning
Chapter 2
Genes from DNA responsible for natural selection, promoting traits that enhance reproductive ability
Lactose tolerance is a genetic mutation
Two ways of replicating genes: having offspring or promoting the reproduction and well- being of those who share your
genes (woman and her sister example)
Inclusive fitness: ensuring the survival of close relatives or kin in order to promote reproductive success
Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA)
Religion gives sense of cohesions and certitude
Two different thoughts as to the origins of religion
One: religion as an adaptation, using it as an evolutionary adaptedness
Two: parental relationship with God, hierarchy inherent in human nature, promoted birth of religion
Could also be a natural growth of ways of thinking: if an animate object moves from a force inside the object, it is its
own will? If from outside of object, it is the will of God.
Theory of mind, project it onto objects, detect agents that make objects in the environment interact
Buss lists social reproductive problems on page 41
Sex has evolved to be pleasurable so that our genes will be able to reproduce eventually
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Distal vs. Proximal: Distal refers to evolutionary and inclusive fitness behaviour while proximal refers to more
immediate environmental, physiological and cognitive behaviours
Distal (distant) reason for sex: evolutionary and gene transmission
Proximal (close) reason for sex: it is pleasurable
Proximate behaviours may be derivative of distal ones
Distal subtly influence proximate behaviours, affecting perhaps overall human nature instead.
Men should strive to impregnate as many women as possible to ensure reproductive fitness
Men like to have more sex, with more partners, attributes do not matter, they will have sex with those they would not
consider dating
Studies shows presence of sexual withholding behaviour from women
Darwin: some displays in animal kingdom seem boastful and wasteful to their survival, but seem to boost reproduction
Women improve their beauty, men assert their dominance
Altruism is an agreed trait between the sexes along with sympathy, kindness, good manners, helpfulness and humour
Short term and long term involvement for men spurred creativity for men while long term is the primary creative
motivation for women
socioanalytic theory asserts human beings are biologically predisposed to live in social groups that are variously
organized into status hierarchies, evolutionary advantages in cooperative ventures such as defence against predators
also provided a means of obtaining a status that would have advantages for individual members, such as first choice in
food, romantic partners, living spaces and whatever other desirable commodities, promoting reproductive success
sociosexuality: restricted: commitment and closeness, need emotional closeness before sex, long enduring sexual
relationships, few sexual partners but they endure for a long time
unrestricted sociosexuality: comfortable engaging in sex without commitment or closeness, short, prototypical male
unrestricted: earlier sex, more partners, prefer especially attractive socially prestigious partners, less investment,
commitment, love and dependency
unrestricted men tend to be narcissistic, sexist
less dominant men can choose to be restrictive and settle down into a committed relationship
unrestricted women can pick the best genes from men
natural selection enables unrestricted women who mate with more dominant males to give birth to "sexy" sons who can
then go on to spread genes further, statistically significant that promiscuous women have more sons
male = quantity, female = quality
restricted = parental investment
3
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