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Final

Lecture 16 - for the final

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Lecture 16
Identity status classification was pioneered by James Marcia. He administered
questionnaires and based on the responses, classified people into one of the 4 states of
identity formation.
Identity Achievement State The Pathmakers these are the people who have met
the challenge of identity formation.
Moratorium State The Searchers - Their statements insinuate an exploratory
process, but at the same time they are yet to make any commitments. These individuals
tend to be on the anxious side, but are also warm and friendly. They have a certain
existential anxiety from having not yet figured it out yet.
Foreclosure State The Guardians (of culture) - They have made commitments
without having done any exploration. They are the guardians of a particular culture, the
preservers, because they take on their parents teachings without question and faithfully
reproduce it. They tend to be traditional, diligent and proper, and they tend to have
authoritarian ideologies; valuing deference to authority.
Diffusion State The Drifters - Not a lot of intellectual work going on in the case of
Diffusion, either because the person has refused to take on the process of identity
formation altogether, or they are yet to engage in it.
It may come instinctively to us to organize this as a hierarchy, where the end goal is the
formation of identity. However, in todays world, it may not be entirely beneficial to us to
have formed a completely achieved identity. Perhaps the people approaching the 21st
century in a moratorium are in a bit of an advantage, considering that there are so many
ideologies and political view points, that its perhaps best no to have made up your mind
so firmly about what is good, and what is true.
Intimacy follows identity, and it will follow it whether we have achieved identity formation
or not. Erikson saw intimacy as opening up to anything that is alien, foreign, or
outside the ego and so he classified a variety of intimate relationships, among them:
Close friendships,
Romantic relationships,
Psychoanalytic experiences, etc.
Erikson classified psychoanalysis as an intimate experience because, in his view, the
patient was not only disclosing intimate details to the therapist, but he/she was also
discovering him/herself in the process, so it was an intimate relationship with ones self
as well.
www.notesolution.com
Orlovsky (1970s) classified 4 states of intimacy from the most mature and
sophisticated (Intimate) to the least mature (Isolate).
Intimate people capable of having close friendships and committed love relationships,
and the capacity to express both appropriate angry and affectionate feelings, in the
context of those relationships. (example, Modern Family)
Preintimate these people are capable of friendships, however are not capable of
committed love relationships, only of superficial dating relationships, and so have
ambivalent feelings about commitment. (example, Sex and the City)
Stereotyped they are not capable neither of close friendships, not of committed love
relationships, all of their relationships lack depth and commitment. (example. The
Plastics from Mean Girls)
Isolate a failure to confront the challenge altogether, they report having an almost
complete lack of social contact, no enduring relationships, experience social anxiety,
withdrawal and isolation. (example, Meg from Family Guy)
To what extent is success at one stage relevant of success at other stages? Does failing
to fully resolve a challenge at one of the stages ill-equip you to resolve the challenges of
the following stages?
There are some forms of evidence that suggest that those who have achieved their
identity challenge move on to intimacy to a greater extent and with more success.
One such study was conducted in 1982 by Tesch & Whitbourne. About 100 teenagers
were interviewed and classified both with the Marcia and the Orlovsky classification
systems. The question was Will there be a correlation between these two systems? Will
one be more likely to be in a particular intimacy class, given ones identity class?The
pattern of numbers suggests that the more likely one is to have made identity relevant
commitments, the more likely one is to fall in the more mature intimacy categorizations.
(The converse is also true) Therefore, it seems to be the case that the more
commitments one has made with regards to identity formation, the more mature their
intimacy capacity is.
Do identity issues in young adults predict intimacy related outcomes in mid-life? Kahn
et. al. (1985) found that those who have resolved their identity issues in their young
adulthood, had better established and more stable marital relationships (a higher level
intimacy).
Summary of Part 2
Identity formation refers to the processes of exploration and commitment through
which we answer the question, Who am I?
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Description
Lecture 16 Identity status classification was pioneered by James Marcia. He administered questionnaires and based on the responses, classified people into one of the 4 states of identity formation. Identity Achievement State The Pathmakers these are the people who have met the challenge of identity formation. Moratorium State The Searchers - Their statements insinuate an exploratory process, but at the same time they are yet to make any commitments. These individuals tend to be on the anxious side, but are also warm and friendly. They have a certain existential anxiety from having not yet figured it out yet. Foreclosure State The Guardians (of culture) - They have made commitments without having done any exploration. They are the guardians of a particular culture, the preservers, because they take on their parents teachings without question and faithfully reproduce it. They tend to be traditional, diligent and proper, and they tend to have authoritarian ideologies; valuing deference to authority. Diffusion State The Drifters - Not a lot of intellectual work going on in the case of Diffusion, either because the person has refused to take on the process of identity formation altogether, or they are yet to engage in it. It may come instinctively to us to organize this as a hierarchy, where the end goal is the formation of identity. However, in todays world, it may not be entirely beneficial to us to have formed a completely achieved identity. Perhaps the people approaching the 21 st century in a moratorium are in a bit of an advantage, considering that there are so many ideologies and political view points, that its perhaps best no to have made up your mind so firmly about what is good, and what is true. Intimacy follows identity, and it will follow it whether we have achieved identity formation or not. Erikson saw intimacy as opening up to anything that is alien, foreign, or outside the ego and so he classified a variety of intimate relationships, among them: Close friendships, Romantic relationships, Psychoanalytic experiences, etc. Erikson classified psychoanalysis as an intimate experience because, in his view, the patient was not only disclosing intimate details to the therapist, but heshe was also discovering himherself in the process, so it was an intimate relationship with ones self as well. www.notesolution.com
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