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Final

Study Guide for the Final Exam

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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PSYB32: Abnormal Psychology
Final Exam Notes
Chapter 12: Substance-Related Disorders
- Use of drugs falls into 2 categories = substance dependence and substance abuse
- Substance dependence = more serious - needs three symptoms:
o Tolerance = 1) larger dose of drug needed to produce desired effect, 2) effect of drug lessens if usual
amount taken
o Withdrawal = negative physical/psych effects when stop taking drug/reduce amount t can use drug to
relieve/avoid withdrawal symptoms
o Use more drug or for longer time than intended
o Z}Pv]̵}(µPvÇ}µµPµv[t RARE
o A lot of time spent to get drug or to recover from its effects
o Drug use continues despite problems it can cause
o Try to give up/cut back in many activities in life because of drug use
- Substance dependence = addiction if tolerance or withdrawal present
- Physical dependence on drug = more severe problems
- Substance abuse = less serious t need one symptom:
o Fail to fulfill major obligation t e.g. neglect child, work
o Exposure to physical danger t e.g. drunk driving
o Legal problems t e.g. spouse abuse
o Persistent social/interpersonal problems t e.g. argue, public intoxication
- Substance intoxication = ingestion of drug affects CNS t maladaptive cog/behaviour effect
- Delirium tremens = substance withdrawal symptom
Alcohol Abuse/Dependence
- Abuse = excessive and harmful use of alcohol, negative social/occupational effects
- dependence = show tolerance/withdrawal
- Withdrawal symptoms AvÆ]}µUUÁlUoUv[op, muscle tremors, high blood pressure
(=bp) and temp, sometimes delirium tremens if blood alcohol drops suddenly, hallucinations (tactile, visual),
look feverish, disoriented, paranoid
- Tolerance because of changes in liver enzyme efficiency and CNS implication t changes to #/sensitivity of GABA
receptors
- t]ZÁoµ]v]À]}v]v}uvµoZÁÇ}}uv(}o}Z}o[]vZ]]}Ç((
in brain t stop drinking = inhibitory effects lost and therefore feel overexcited
- Polydrug/polysubstance abuse = use and abuse more than one drug at a time
o 80-85% drunks are also smokers t nicotine and alcohol are cross-tolerant
o Can be harmful t e.g. alcohol and barbiturates can make people suicidal
- Prevalence = 20% men, 8% women t declines with age
- Alcohol = 4th leading cause of disability by WHO and 4 times more likely to use health services and medical
expenses twice as high
- Absorption of alcohol fast but removal is slow
- Effects depends on = concentration in blood, amount ingested at a time, presence/absence of food in stomach,
body size, and liver efficiency
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PSYB32: Abnormal Psychology
- Alcohol stimulates GABA = reduces tension and increases serotonin and dopamine = pleasurable
- Short-term effects = slurred speech, decrease anxiety, more social, relax, more aggressive/sexual
- Long-term effects = malnutrition (B-complex vitamins), amnestic syndrome, loss of memory, liver cirrhosis,
damage endocrine glands, pancreas, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, capillary hemorrhages, swelling/redness
in face, brain cell damage in temporal lobes
- Fetal alcohol syndrome = heavy drinking in pregnancy t cranial, facial, and limb anomalies
o Partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder
Inhalant Drug Use
- Sniff glue, correction fluid, spray paint, cosmetics, gas, aerosol sprays, nitrous oxide of whipped cream cans
- High in Natives
- Cause damage to CNS t headaches, nausea
Nicotine and Smoking
- Nicotine stimulates nicotinic receptors in brain t activates dopamine neurons in mesolimbic area
- Female smokers have greater changes in cog activity after smoking
- Causes death in 1/5 Americans and most preventable cause of premature death
- Medical problems = lung cancer, emphysema, larynx cancer, esophagus cancer, CVD
- Harmful components = nicotine, CO, tar (carcinogens)
- Men more likely to smoke, many Natives smoke
- Second-hand smoke = environmental tobacco smoke t has more ammonia, CO, nicotine, and smoke that
actually inhaled by smoker
Marijuana
- Dried/crushed leaves of hemp plant = cannabis sativa
- Hashish = stronger mj t remove/dry resin exudates of tops of high-quality cannabis
- 1st used to treat rheumatism, gout, depression, cholera, neuralgia
- Effect depends on potency and size of dose
- Feel relaxed, more social, emotion shifts, dull attention, fragmented thoughts, impaired memory, hallucinations,
paranoid/panic
- Active chemical in mj = THC t more THC = more potent
- Type of anandamide = bliss in Sanskrit
- Short-term memory loss because activates cannabinoid receptors in hippocampus
- Short-term effects = bloodshot/itchy eyes, dry mouth/throat, munchies, less pressure in eye, raised bp
- Mj much more detrimental to health than tobacco (4x tar, 5x MO, 10x cell damage in airways)
- May experience reverse tolerance because THC is stored and released in small quantities
- Used for therapy = in cancer patients with nausea and loss of appetite, for AIDS discomfort, glaucoma, epilepsy,
ms, and medical usage for pain and nausea
Sedatives
- Sedatives = downers t slow body/cog activity and reduce responsiveness
- Opiates = relieve pain and induce sleep
o Opium = from poppy
www.notesolution.com
PSYB32: Abnormal Psychology
o Morphine = alkaloid, bitter-tasting powder t powerful sedative and pain reliever
o Heroin = converted from morphine t used in cough syrups and medsU'}[}Ávu]]vt rush,
feelings of warmth, ecstasy
Not having heroin = muscle pain, sneeze, sweat, tearful, yawn t flu-like
Long-term = muscle twitch, cramps, chills, flush/sweat, high heart rate vUv[oU
vomit, diarrhea
o Effects = euphoria, drowsiness, lack of coordination t opioid receptors
- Barbiturates = synthetic sedatives t for sleep and relaxation
- Can be lethal with alcohol because feel more depressed
Stimulants
- Stimulants = uppers t act on brain and sympathetic NS t increase alertness and motor activity
- Amphetamines = from a desert shrub to treat asthma
o Used for mild depression and appetite
o 1st used in WW2 to stop fatigue
o Today, used for hyperactive children
o Works by releasing norepinephrine and dopamine and blocks reuptake of these NTs
o Effect = more awake, inhibit intestinal function, less appetite, quick hr (heart rate), bv (blood vessels)
and mucous membranes constrict, euphoric, social, high energy and self-confidence
o Large dosage = nervous, confused, palpitations, headaches, dizzy, no sleep, hostile, paranoid, delusions,
like schizo
o Tolerance develops quickly
- Cocaine = from coca shrubs t used as local anesthetic and is a vasoconstrictor
o Freud used it for depression, Sherlock Holmes was coke addict
o Blocks reuptake of dopamine in mesolimbic areas = pleasurable state
o Increases sexual desire, self-confidence
o Overdose = chills, nausea, insomnia
o Affects babies in womb t can be born addicted to coke
o Problems = more heart attack/stroke, memory and attention problems
LSD and Hallucinogens
- LSD = psychotomimetic b/c produces psychosis symptoms
- Hallucinogen = drug that produces hallucinations
- Mescaline = alkaloid and active ingredient of peyote t from peyote cactus
- Psilocybin = crystalline power from mushroom t discovered by Hoffman
- Might be used to treat OCD patients and depression with ketamine
- Ecstasy = MCA/MDMA t like mescaline and amphetamines - psychoactive agent in nutmeg
o Often used at raves
o Effect = increases intimacy, insight, interpersonal relationships, mood, aesthetic awareness, muscle
tension, REM, increase hr and bp, nausea, faint, chills/sweat, anxiety, depression, confusion
- PCP = angel dust t used as a tranquilizer for horses
o Paranoia, violence, coma, death
- Effects = synthesias = overflow from 1 sensory modality to another, flashbacks after drug wears off
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Description
PSYB32: Abnormal Psychology Final Exam Notes Chapter 12: Substance-Related Disorders - Use of drugs falls into 2 categories = substance dependence and substance abuse - Substance dependence = more serious - needs three symptoms: o Tolerance = 1) larger dose of drug needed to produce desired effect, 2) effect of drug lessens if usual amount taken o Withdrawal = negative physicalpsych effects when stop taking drugreduce amount J can use drug to relieveavoid withdrawal symptoms o Use more drug or for longer time than intended o Z }2L]Z}2L} Z2 L[J RARE o A lot of time spent to get drug or to recover from its effects o Drug use continues despite problems it can cause o Try to give upcut back in many activities in life because of drug use - Substance dependence = addiction if tolerance or withdrawal present - Physical dependence on drug = more severe problems - Substance abuse = less serious J need one symptom: o Fail to fulfill major obligation J e.g. neglect child, work o Exposure to physical danger J e.g. drunk driving o Legal problems J e.g. spouse abuse o Persistent socialinterpersonal problems J e.g. argue, public intoxication - Substance intoxication = ingestion of drug affects CNS J maladaptive cogbehaviour effect - Delirium tremens = substance withdrawal symptom Alcohol AbuseDependence - Abuse = excessive and harmful use of alcohol, negative socialoccupational effects - dependence = show tolerancewithdrawal - Withdrawal symptoms )L]}Z7ZZ7l7ZoZZ7 L[Zop, muscle tremors, high blood pressure (=bp) and temp, sometimes delirium tremens if blood alcohol drops suddenly, hallucinations (tactile, visual), look feverish, disoriented, paranoid - Tolerance because of changes in liver enzyme efficiency and CNS implication J changes to #sensitivity of GABA receptors - J]Zo Z]L Z ]]}L]LZ}KLoZZ} }KLZ}o }Z}o[Z]LZ]]} in brain J stop drinking = inhibitory effects lost and therefore feel overexcited - Polydrugpolysubstance abuse = use and abuse more than one drug at a time o 80-85% drunks are also smokers J nicotine and alcohol are cross-tolerant o Can be harmful J e.g. alcohol and barbiturates can make people suicidal - Prevalence = 20% men, 8% women J declines with age - Alcohol = 4 leading cause of disability by WHO and 4 times more likely to use health services and medical expenses twice as high - Absorption of alcohol fast but removal is slow - Effects depends on = concentration in blood, amount ingested at a time, presenceabsence of food in stomach, body size, and liver efficiency www.notesolution.comPSYB32: Abnormal Psychology - Alcohol stimulates GABA = reduces tension and increases serotonin and dopamine = pleasurable - Short-term effects = slurred speech, decrease anxiety, more social, relax, more aggressivesexual - Long-term effects = malnutrition (B-complex vitamins),amnestic syndrome, loss of memory, liver cirrhosis, damage endocrine glands, pancreas, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, capillary hemorrhages, swellingredness in face, brain cell damage in temporal lobes - Fetal alcohol syndrome = heavy drinking in pregnancy J cranial, facial, and limb anomalies o Partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder Inhalant Drug Use - Sniff glue, correction fluid, spray paint, cosmetics, gas, aerosol sprays, nitrous oxide of whipped cream cans - High in Natives - Cause damage to CNS J headaches, nausea Nicotine and Smoking - Nicotine stimulates nicotinic receptors in brain J activates dopamine neurons in mesolimbic area - Female smokers have greater changes in cog activity after smoking - Causes death in 15 Americans and most preventable cause of premature death - Medical problems = lung cancer, emphysema, larynx cancer, esophagus cancer, CVD - Harmful components = nicotine, CO, tar (carcinogens) - Men more likely to smoke, many Natives smoke - Second-hand smoke = environmental tobacco smoke J has more ammonia, CO, nicotine, and smoke that actually inhaled by smoker Marijuana - Driedcrushed leaves of hemp plant = cannabis sativa - Hashish = stronger mj J removedry resin exudates of tops of high-quality cannabis - 1 used to treat rheumatism, gout, depression, cholera, neuralgia - Effect depends on potency and size of dose - Feel relaxed, more social, emotion shifts, dull attention, fragmented thoughts, impaired memory, hallucinations, paranoidpanic - Active chemical in mj = THC J more THC = more potent - Type of anandamide = bliss in Sanskrit - Short-term memory loss because activates cannabinoid receptors in hippocampus - Short-term effects = bloodshotitchy eyes, dry mouththroat, munchies, less pressure in eye, raised bp - Mj much more detrimental to health than tobacco (4x tar, 5x MO, 10x cell damage in airways) - May experience reverse tolerance because THC is stored and released in small quantities - Used for therapy = in cancer patients with nausea and loss of appetite, for AIDS discomfort, glaucoma, epilepsy, ms, and medical usage for pain and nausea Sedatives - Sedatives = downers J slow bodycog activity and reduce responsiveness - Opiates = relieve pain and induce sleep o Opium = from poppy www.notesolution.com
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