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Study Guide for the Final Exam

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis
Study Guide

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PSYB32: Abnormal Psychology
Final Exam Notes
Chapter 12: Substance-Related Disorders
- Use of drugs falls into 2 categories = substance dependence and substance abuse
- Substance dependence = more serious - needs three symptoms:
o Tolerance = 1) larger dose of drug needed to produce desired effect, 2) effect of drug lessens if usual
amount taken
o Withdrawal = negative physical/psych effects when stop taking drug/reduce amount t can use drug to
relieve/avoid withdrawal symptoms
o Use more drug or for longer time than intended
o Z}Pv]̵}(µPvÇ}µµPµv[t RARE
o A lot of time spent to get drug or to recover from its effects
o Drug use continues despite problems it can cause
o Try to give up/cut back in many activities in life because of drug use
- Substance dependence = addiction if tolerance or withdrawal present
- Physical dependence on drug = more severe problems
- Substance abuse = less serious t need one symptom:
o Fail to fulfill major obligation t e.g. neglect child, work
o Exposure to physical danger t e.g. drunk driving
o Legal problems t e.g. spouse abuse
o Persistent social/interpersonal problems t e.g. argue, public intoxication
- Substance intoxication = ingestion of drug affects CNS t maladaptive cog/behaviour effect
- Delirium tremens = substance withdrawal symptom
Alcohol Abuse/Dependence
- Abuse = excessive and harmful use of alcohol, negative social/occupational effects
- dependence = show tolerance/withdrawal
- Withdrawal symptoms AvÆ]}µUUÁlUoUv[op, muscle tremors, high blood pressure
(=bp) and temp, sometimes delirium tremens if blood alcohol drops suddenly, hallucinations (tactile, visual),
look feverish, disoriented, paranoid
- Tolerance because of changes in liver enzyme efficiency and CNS implication t changes to #/sensitivity of GABA
- t]ZÁoµ]v]À]}v]v}uvµoZÁÇ}}uv(}o}Z}o[]vZ]]}Ç((
in brain t stop drinking = inhibitory effects lost and therefore feel overexcited
- Polydrug/polysubstance abuse = use and abuse more than one drug at a time
o 80-85% drunks are also smokers t nicotine and alcohol are cross-tolerant
o Can be harmful t e.g. alcohol and barbiturates can make people suicidal
- Prevalence = 20% men, 8% women t declines with age
- Alcohol = 4th leading cause of disability by WHO and 4 times more likely to use health services and medical
expenses twice as high
- Absorption of alcohol fast but removal is slow
- Effects depends on = concentration in blood, amount ingested at a time, presence/absence of food in stomach,
body size, and liver efficiency

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PSYB32: Abnormal Psychology
- Alcohol stimulates GABA = reduces tension and increases serotonin and dopamine = pleasurable
- Short-term effects = slurred speech, decrease anxiety, more social, relax, more aggressive/sexual
- Long-term effects = malnutrition (B-complex vitamins), amnestic syndrome, loss of memory, liver cirrhosis,
damage endocrine glands, pancreas, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, capillary hemorrhages, swelling/redness
in face, brain cell damage in temporal lobes
- Fetal alcohol syndrome = heavy drinking in pregnancy t cranial, facial, and limb anomalies
o Partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder
Inhalant Drug Use
- Sniff glue, correction fluid, spray paint, cosmetics, gas, aerosol sprays, nitrous oxide of whipped cream cans
- High in Natives
- Cause damage to CNS t headaches, nausea
Nicotine and Smoking
- Nicotine stimulates nicotinic receptors in brain t activates dopamine neurons in mesolimbic area
- Female smokers have greater changes in cog activity after smoking
- Causes death in 1/5 Americans and most preventable cause of premature death
- Medical problems = lung cancer, emphysema, larynx cancer, esophagus cancer, CVD
- Harmful components = nicotine, CO, tar (carcinogens)
- Men more likely to smoke, many Natives smoke
- Second-hand smoke = environmental tobacco smoke t has more ammonia, CO, nicotine, and smoke that
actually inhaled by smoker
- Dried/crushed leaves of hemp plant = cannabis sativa
- Hashish = stronger mj t remove/dry resin exudates of tops of high-quality cannabis
- 1st used to treat rheumatism, gout, depression, cholera, neuralgia
- Effect depends on potency and size of dose
- Feel relaxed, more social, emotion shifts, dull attention, fragmented thoughts, impaired memory, hallucinations,
- Active chemical in mj = THC t more THC = more potent
- Type of anandamide = bliss in Sanskrit
- Short-term memory loss because activates cannabinoid receptors in hippocampus
- Short-term effects = bloodshot/itchy eyes, dry mouth/throat, munchies, less pressure in eye, raised bp
- Mj much more detrimental to health than tobacco (4x tar, 5x MO, 10x cell damage in airways)
- May experience reverse tolerance because THC is stored and released in small quantities
- Used for therapy = in cancer patients with nausea and loss of appetite, for AIDS discomfort, glaucoma, epilepsy,
ms, and medical usage for pain and nausea
- Sedatives = downers t slow body/cog activity and reduce responsiveness
- Opiates = relieve pain and induce sleep
o Opium = from poppy

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PSYB32: Abnormal Psychology
o Morphine = alkaloid, bitter-tasting powder t powerful sedative and pain reliever
o Heroin = converted from morphine t used in cough syrups and medsU'}[}Ávu]]vt rush,
feelings of warmth, ecstasy
Not having heroin = muscle pain, sneeze, sweat, tearful, yawn t flu-like
Long-term = muscle twitch, cramps, chills, flush/sweat, high heart rate vUv[oU
vomit, diarrhea
o Effects = euphoria, drowsiness, lack of coordination t opioid receptors
- Barbiturates = synthetic sedatives t for sleep and relaxation
- Can be lethal with alcohol because feel more depressed
- Stimulants = uppers t act on brain and sympathetic NS t increase alertness and motor activity
- Amphetamines = from a desert shrub to treat asthma
o Used for mild depression and appetite
o 1st used in WW2 to stop fatigue
o Today, used for hyperactive children
o Works by releasing norepinephrine and dopamine and blocks reuptake of these NTs
o Effect = more awake, inhibit intestinal function, less appetite, quick hr (heart rate), bv (blood vessels)
and mucous membranes constrict, euphoric, social, high energy and self-confidence
o Large dosage = nervous, confused, palpitations, headaches, dizzy, no sleep, hostile, paranoid, delusions,
like schizo
o Tolerance develops quickly
- Cocaine = from coca shrubs t used as local anesthetic and is a vasoconstrictor
o Freud used it for depression, Sherlock Holmes was coke addict
o Blocks reuptake of dopamine in mesolimbic areas = pleasurable state
o Increases sexual desire, self-confidence
o Overdose = chills, nausea, insomnia
o Affects babies in womb t can be born addicted to coke
o Problems = more heart attack/stroke, memory and attention problems
LSD and Hallucinogens
- LSD = psychotomimetic b/c produces psychosis symptoms
- Hallucinogen = drug that produces hallucinations
- Mescaline = alkaloid and active ingredient of peyote t from peyote cactus
- Psilocybin = crystalline power from mushroom t discovered by Hoffman
- Might be used to treat OCD patients and depression with ketamine
- Ecstasy = MCA/MDMA t like mescaline and amphetamines - psychoactive agent in nutmeg
o Often used at raves
o Effect = increases intimacy, insight, interpersonal relationships, mood, aesthetic awareness, muscle
tension, REM, increase hr and bp, nausea, faint, chills/sweat, anxiety, depression, confusion
- PCP = angel dust t used as a tranquilizer for horses
o Paranoia, violence, coma, death
- Effects = synthesias = overflow from 1 sensory modality to another, flashbacks after drug wears off
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