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Final

PSYB32H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Aversion Therapy, Etiology, Schizotypal Personality Disorder

40 Pages
3813 Views
Fall 2011

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter 11: Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia: psychotic disorder characterized by major disturbances in
through, emotion, and behaviour disordered thinking in which ideas are
not logically related, faulty perceptions and attention, flat or inappropriate
affect, and bizarre disturbances in motor activity
They withdraw from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions
and hallucinations
Its one of the most severe psychopathologies
Prevalence of 1%
Clinical Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Disturbances in several major areas –thought, perceptions and attention,
motor behaviour; affect or emotions and life functioning
There is a lot of heterogeneity
Positive Symptoms
Positive symptoms: comprise excesses or distortions, such as
disorganized speech, hallucinations and delusions, an acute episode of
schizophrenia
It involve the presence of a behaviour that is not apparent in most people
Disorganized speech
Aka formal thought disorder
Disorganized speech: problems in organizing ideas and in speaking so
that a listener can understand
There is incoherence in conversations (not connected and hard to
understand)
Speech may also be disordered as loose associations/derailment
(difficulty sticking to one topic)
oThey may drift off in what they are saying
But disorganized speech is not a discriminator between schizophrenia and
other psychoses (like some mood disorders)
Delusions
Thinking that others are plotting against you
Delusions: beliefs held contrary to reality, are common positive symptoms
Persecutory delusions are found in 65% of them
They may think their thoughts are beings stolen from them or are being
broadcasted
Hallucinations and Other disorders of Perception
They may feel depersonalized
Hallucinations: sensory experiences in the absence of any stimulation
from the environment (more auditory than visual)
oThey hear their own thoughts spoken by another voice
oThey hear voices arguing
oHere voices commenting on their behaviour
1
Negative Symptoms
Negative symptoms: behavioural deficits, such as avolition, alogia,
anhedonia, flat affect and ascoiality
They tend to endure beyond an acute episode and have profound effects on
the lives of patients
Flat affect can be a side effect of antipsychotic medication
Avolition
Apathy/avolition: lack of energy and seeming absence of interest or
inability to persist in what are usually routine activities
Inattentive to grooming and personal hygiene
Difficulty persistent at work, school or household chores
Alogia
A negative thought disorder
Poverty of speech, sheer amount of speech is greatly reduced
Poverty in content of speech
Vague and repetitive speech
Anhedonia
An inability to experience pleasure
They are aware of it
Flat Affect
No stimulus can elicit an emotional response
Stare vacantly, muscles of face flaccid, and eyes lifeless
Flat and toneless voice
Asociality
impaired social relationships
few friends, poor social skills and little interest being with people
Schizophrenia onset is beginning in childhood
It is also said that they might not be able to recognize the emotions on top
of not being able to express it
Other Symptoms
Catatonia: several motor abnormalities
oGesture repeatedly, using peculiar and complex finger sequences of
finger, hand and arm movements
oSometimes excitement, wild flailing of the limbs
oCatatonic Immobility: patients adopt unusual postures and
maintain hem for a very long period of time (stand on one leg)
oWaxy flexibility: another person can move the patient’s limb into
strange positions that the patient will then maintain for extended
periods
Inappropriate affect: emotional response are out of context (laugh at
someone’s death)
othey shift rapidly from one state to another for no discernible
reason
2
History of the Concept of Schizophrenia
Early Descriptions
formulated by Kraepelin and Bleuler
dementia praecox: early term for schizophrenia
he divided it into 2 major groups of endogenous or internally caused
psychosis
omanic-depressive illness
odementia praecox
included dementia paranoids, catatonia, and hebephrenia
The DSM-IV-TR Diagnosis
Schizoaffective disorder: comprises a mixture of symptoms of
schizophrenia and mood disorders
Requires at least 6 months; at least 1 month of the active phase (the
presence of at least 2 of the following: delusions, hallucinations,
disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour and
negative symptoms)
oOnly 1 is required if delusions are bizarre or hallucinations consists
of commenting or arguing voices
Prodromal: before the active phase
Residual: after the active phase
Problems during prodormal and residual
oSocial withdrawal, impaired role functioning, blunted or
inappropriate affect, lack of initiative, vague and circumstantial
speech, impaired hygiene, grooming
oOdd beliefs or magical thinking and unusual perceptual
experiences
Schizophreniform disorder: acute schizophrenia DSMII
oSame as those of schizophrenia symptoms but lasts only from 1-6
months
Brief psychotic disorder: lasts from 1day to 1 months and usually
brought on by extreme stress
Delusional disorder: troubled persistent persecutory delusions or by
delusional jealousy, the unfounded conviction that a spouse or lover is
unfaithful
oSomatic delusions: believing some internal organ is
malfunctioning
oDelusions of erotomania: believed that one is loved by some
other person (usually a complete stranger in higher status)
oA person with delusions disorder does not have disorganized speech
or hallucinations, and delusions are less bizarre
oIt is quite rare and begins later in life than schizophrenia
Categories of Schizophrenia is DSM-IV-TR
3 types of schizophrenic disorders in the DSM IV TR
3

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Description
Chapter 11 SchizophreniaSchizophrenia psychotic disorder characterized by major disturbances in through emotion and behaviour disordered thinking in which ideas are not logically related faulty perceptions and attention flat or inappropriate affect and bizarre disturbances in motor activityThey withdraw from people and reality often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinationsIts one of the most severe psychopathologiesPrevalence of 1Clinical Symptoms of SchizophreniaDisturbances in several major areas thought perceptions and attention motor behaviour affect or emotions and life functioningThere is a lot of heterogeneityPositive SymptomsPositive symptoms comprise excesses or distortions such as disorganized speech hallucinations and delusions an acute episode of schizophreniaIt involve the presence of a behaviour that is not apparent in most peopleDisorganized speechAka formal thought disorderDisorganized speech problems in organizing ideas and in speaking so that a listener can understandThere is incoherence in conversations not connected and hard to understandSpeech may also be disordered as loose associationsderailment difficulty sticking to one topicoThey may drift off in what they are sayingBut disorganized speech is not a discriminator between schizophrenia and other psychoses like some mood disordersDelusionsThinking that others are plotting against youDelusions beliefs held contrary to reality are common positive symptomsPersecutory delusions are found in 65 of themThey may think their thoughts are beings stolen from them or are being broadcastedHallucinations and Other disorders of PerceptionThey may feel depersonalizedHallucinations sensory experiences in the absence of any stimulation from the environment more auditory than visualoThey hear their own thoughts spoken by another voiceoThey hear voices arguingoHere voices commenting on their behaviour1Negative SymptomsNegative symptoms behavioural deficits such as avolition alogia anhedonia flat affect and ascoialityThey tend to endure beyond an acute episode and have profound effects on the lives of patientsFlat affect can be a side effect of antipsychotic medicationAvolitionApathyavolition lack of energy and seeming absence of interest or inability to persist in what are usually routine activitiesInattentive to grooming and personal hygieneDifficulty persistent at work school or household choresAlogiaA negative thought disorderPoverty of speech sheer amount of speech is greatly reducedPoverty in content of speechVague and repetitive speechAnhedoniaAn inability to experience pleasure They are aware of itFlat AffectNo stimulus can elicit an emotional responseStare vacantly muscles of face flaccid and eyes lifelessFlat and toneless voiceAsocialityimpaired social relationshipsfew friends poor social skills and little interest being with peopleSchizophrenia onset is beginning in childhoodIt is also said that they might not be able to recognize the emotions on top of not being able to express itOther SymptomsCatatonia several motor abnormalitiesoGesture repeatedly using peculiar and complex finger sequences of finger hand and arm movementsoSometimes excitement wild flailing of the limbsoCatatonic Immobility patients adopt unusual postures and maintain hem for a very long period of time stand on one legoWaxy flexibility another person can move the patients limb into strange positions that the patient will then maintain for extended periodsInappropriate affect emotional response are out of context laugh at someones deathothey shift rapidly from one state to another for no discernible reason2History of the Concept of SchizophreniaEarly Descriptionsformulated by Kraepelin and Bleulerdementia praecox early term for schizophreniahe divided it into 2 major groups of endogenous or internally caused psychosisomanicdepressive illnessodementia praecoxincluded dementia paranoids catatonia and hebephreniaThe DSMIVTR DiagnosisSchizoaffective disorder comprises a mixture of symptoms of schizophrenia and mood disordersRequires at least 6 months at least 1 month of the active phase the presence of at least 2 of the following delusions hallucinations disorganized speech grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour and negative symptomsoOnly 1 is required if delusions are bizarre or hallucinations consists of commenting or arguing voicesProdromal before the active phase Residual after the active phaseProblems during prodormal and residualoSocial withdrawal impaired role functioning blunted or inappropriate affect lack of initiative vague and circumstantial speech impaired hygiene groomingoOdd beliefs or magical thinkingand unusual perceptual experiencesSchizophreniform disorder acute schizophrenia DSMIIoSame as those of schizophrenia symptoms but lasts only from 16 monthsBrief psychotic disorder lasts from 1day to 1 months and usually brought on by extreme stressDelusional disorder troubled persistent persecutory delusions or by delusional jealousy the unfounded conviction that a spouse or lover is unfaithfuloSomatic delusions believing some internal organ is malfunctioningoDelusions of erotomania believed that one is loved by some other person usually a complete stranger in higher statusoA person with delusions disorder does not have disorganized speech or hallucinations and delusions are less bizarreoIt is quite rare and begins later in life than schizophreniaCategories of Schizophrenia is DSMIVTR3 types of schizophrenic disorders in the DSM IV TR3
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