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PSYB45H3 Study Guide - Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Relaxation Technique, Systematic Desensitization

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Zachariah Campbell

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PSYB45H3 Y Chapter 23 (p.521-533)
Behavioral contract (contingency/performance contract) – a written agreement between 2 parties in which one/both parties agree to
engage in a specified level of a target behavior(s); contract states the consequence that will be administered contingent on t he
occurrence/nonoccurrence of the behavior
oIdentifying target behavior
oStating how the target behaviors will be measured
oStating when the behavior must be performed
oIdentifying reinforcement/punishment contingency
oIdentifying who will implement the contingency
Types of behavioral contracts
1. One-party (unilateral) contract
one person seeks to change B and ar ranges reinforcement/punishment contingencies with a contract
manager, who implements the contingencies
used when person wants to increase desirable behaviors/decrease undesirable behaviors
2. Two-party (bilateral) contracts
Contract is written between 2 parties, each of whom wants to change B of the other person
i.Quid pro quo contract (i.e. one thing is given in return for another) – one persons target
behavior is the consequence for the other persons target behavior
ii.Parallel contract – separate contingencies are established for each persons target behavior
Why do behavioral contracts work?
oBehavioral consequences
oPublic commitment
oRule-governed behavior
oEstablishing operations
PSYB45H3 Y Chapter 24 (p.541-558)
Fear – composed of ope rant and respondent behavior; person is afraid of a particular stimulus/stimulus condition
Procedures to reduce fear and anxiety
oRelaxation training
Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)
Person systematically tenses a nd relaxes each of the major muscle groups in the body
Diaphragmatic breathing
Person breathes deeply in a slow, rhythmic fashion
Attention-focusing exercises
Produce relaxation by directing attention to neutral/pleasant stimulus to remove persons
attention from anxiety-producing stimulus
Behavioral relaxation training
Person is taught to relax each muscle group in the body by assuming relaxed postures
oSystematic desensitization – person with the phobia practices relaxation while imagining scenes of the fear-
producing stimulus
3 steps:
client learns relaxation skills
therapist and client develop and hierarchy of fe ar-producing stimuli
osubjective units of discomfort scale (SUDS)
client practices the relaxation skills while therapist describes scenes from the hierarchy
oIn vivo de sensitization – client gradually approaches/is gradually exposed to the actual fear-producing stimulus
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