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PSYB51H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Retinitis Pigmentosa, Amacrine Cell, Sine Wave

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Matthias Niemeier
Study Guide

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Lecture 1: Introduction
Early Philosophy
o Nativism: our perceptions are not derived from external sources (senses). We have
innate abilities
o Perception depends on events and energy that change in the world
o Our understanding of reality is restricted to what we can perceive
o We can never perceive the exact same thing more than once in the world b/c the first
time we experience it changes how we experience it the second time; everything flows
Adaptation: when we get used to something b/c it’s been there for a while
Democritus: we sense things b/c atoms from objects bounce off to interact with atoms in our
organs. Perception is the physical interaction b/w the world and our bodies. Primary and
Sensory transducer: a receptor that changes physical signals form the environment into neural
signals that the brain can interpret (for every sense )
Hobbes: everything we know and imagine is learned through senses; only matter exists
Locke: our thoughts are all derived from the experiences we have with our senses
Fechner: known as the “father of experimental psychology”
o Psychophysics: mix of the mind (psychological) and matter (physical)
o Panpsychism: all matter has consciousness even inanimate things
o JND: the minimum change it takes a person to perceive the difference b/w one stimulus
and a reference stimulus
Two-point threshold (Fechner): the smallest distance at which two stimuli can be distinguished
o Dualist view: there is a body but a mind exists as well; didn’t trust senses
o Mind-body dualism: the idea that two distinct principles exist: the mind and body
Monism: the idea that humans are only made of one thing: the body or the mind
o Materialism: only body/matter/senses exists
o Mentalism: only the mind exist
Empiricism: the idea that everything is learned from the senses
Fechner’s Law: as intensity of stimulus magnitude increases, sensation magnitude increases
Absolute threshold: minimum amount of stimulation necessary for person to detect a stimulus
Psychophysical Methods
o Method of constant stimuli: presentation of stimuli until person can detect the smallest
intensity; simple but inefficient b/c stimuli may be well above or below threshold
o Method of limits: taking the crossover points of what person can hear and what they can’t hear
o Method of adjustment: not used to measure threshold
o Magnitude estimation: person rates the sound on a scale
o Cross-modality matching: matching the intensities of two different modalities
Signal Detection Theory: a psychophysical theory that quantifies the response of an observer to the
presentation of a signal in the presence of noise

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Lecture 2: The First Steps in Vision
A Little Light Physics
Light: a wave (when it moves around the world); a stream of photons(when it is absorbed), tiny
particles that each consist of one quantum of energy
o Absorbed: when energy is taken up by a surface (darker)
o Diffracted: when energy is bent or having waves that are spread out (sun thru trees)
o Reflected: when energy is redirected as it hits a surface (4 parts of eyes reflect light)
o Transmitted: when energy passes thru a surface when it is not absorbed or reflected
o Refracted: when a medium alters energy as it passes thru another medium (light
entering water from air)
The Human Eye
Evolution of the eye
o Region of photosensitive cells: every single photoreceptor gets light on same side of
body; everything is completely blurred
o Depressed/folded area: light can only come from certain directions; still blurred
o Pinhole: finer directional sensitivity but limited imaging; not very hygienic
o Transparent humor develops
o Distinct lens develops
o Iris and separate cornea develop
o Cornea: no blood/vessels; blink reflex (tears); transparent sensory nerve endings; light
photons are usually transmitted thru it
o Pupil: controls amount of light reaching retina; hole in the iris
o Aqueous humor: water in anterior; behind cornea; gives O2 and nutrients, remves waste
o Vitreous humor: water in posterior
o Lens: no blood; transparent
o Retina: contains photoreceptors; sends image to optic nerve
o Light passes thru cornealensretina
o Fundus: back surface of the eye; seen with ophthalmoscope
o Optic disc: where veins, arteries, blood vessels enters the eye and axons leave the eye
Accommodation: ciliary muscles makes lens fatter (more refraction) to see closer objects and
thinner (less refraction) to see farther away objects
Problems with the Eye
Myopia: near-sightedness, concave lens, negative, image in front of retina, longer eyeball
Hyperopia: far-sightedness, condense lens, positive, image behind retina, shorter eyeball
Emmetropia: perfect match of refractive power and length of eyeball
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