PSYB57H3 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Frontal Lobe Injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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PSYB57H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYB57 Lecture 1 Notes
Introduction:
Cognitive psychology: the scientific study of the processes and products of the
human mind
3 key processes of the brain:
Absorbing (sensation) / Stimulus or input
Processing (perception, computations, integration)
Responding (decisions and action) / response or output
A major difficulty in cognitive psychology is our inability to see the mental processes
in isolation from their output. Understanding the processing stage is significant to
the advancement of cognitive psychology.
Some features of cognition:
Importance:
Cognitive resources are often limited to some degree
Cognitive functioning is important for functioning well in the real world (it’s
relevant)
Variability:
There are within-subject differences in cognitive functioning
There are between-subject differences in “” “”
Flexibility:
Cognitive abilities often change, for better or worse, with development or
dysfunction
Many cognitive abilities are malleable at least to some extent
Method of inquiry: introspection (structuralism)
Structuralism: the idea concerned with taking complex phenomena and trying to
break them down into the pieces that break them up
- Introspection piggy-backs off of structuralism
Introspection: looking inside yourself to understand how your mental processes
work
Key limitations of introspection:
- difficulty to verify (because events are private so you have to just trust the
person’s word)
- we are not always consciously aware of all our mental processes
- we are using the end product to study the process (ironic isn’t it?)
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Influential scientists: William Wundt and Edward Titchener
Method of inquiry: Freudian theory:
The unconscious mind:
Freudian slips: “slip of the tongues” that are manifestations of the
unconscious not being properly restrained
Latent and manifest content / dreams : when you dream there are things
(eg. Prof Souza finds himself as a knight fighting a dragon often) that
represent hiddent/latent content that represents areas of the unconscious.
Personality theory:
Id, superego, ego
Defence mechanisms
Origins of psychiatric illnesses (Freud believe this was the unconscious)
Limitations:
Falsifiability: much of Freud’s ideas were abstract and not measurable (eg. the
unconscious isn’t a conscious “matter”)
Method of inquiry: behaviorism
Psychology is the science of behaviour
Behaviourist belief the mind is unobservable and thus should not be a target of
scientific inquiry
Associative learning and conditioning strongly influence behaviour
Limitations:
Behaviourism struggles to account for creativity, learning language, false
memories…there must be a mental component behind these processes so
you must study the unobservable mind too
Limiting only the observable is a bad idea since there’s so much that
happens within the brain and cognition that isn’t found in observable
behaviours
Influential scientists: Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, John Watson
Method of inquiry: Cognitivism:
Yes we can observe behaviour but we can also make inferences about mental
processes that are cognitive
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