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CogLab article notes needed for final exam

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Gabriela Ilie
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PSYB57 Final CogLab Readers
Learning Refers to acquiring knowledge abt the rule-governed complexities of the stimulus
Independently of conscious attempts
Eg: implicit sequence learning, where person learns a complex pattern but is unable to
state what the rule is that governs the pattern
Learned info is unconscious
Typical implicit sequence learning task = serial response time (SRT) task
Interested in how quickly a person can identify where a stimulus was shown
There is an underlying pattern that defines the order in which the stimuli appears in
the location
If the subject learns this pattern, their rxn times (RT) will decrease
Test block = pattern is changed; if subject learns the pattern, then the RT increases
Process-pure assumption = when one assumes that a particular task requires only one
particular kind of processing
If you avoid this, then the contradictory findings (sometimes there is awareness of the
learned info, sometimes there isnt) wont be that evident
Inclusion condn = task is set up so that both processes could contribute to perf
Exclusion condn = task is set up so that one process will help perf but the other wont
Tasks that seem implicit might benefit from explicit info
Both sources of info could potentially play a role
rotation It is impossible to know whether ppls mental images really differ, or if some subjects
just describe the mental images diff
Rxn time increased with angle of rotation b/w the shapes
Increase was liner; suggests that it takes time to mentally rotate an image, implies that
mental images are much like real images
Every 50 degrees of physical rotation required one second of mental rotation
Rate of mental rotation is at a constant velocity, implies that we treat mental images in
a very similar way to how we treat real objects
Rxn times start to decrease as the angle gets past 180 degrees; suggests that subjects
are mentally rotating the object using the shortest path
Speech and language seems to be an ability that sets us apart from all other species
Defn = even tho there is a gradual change in the physical stimuli, ppl hear only 2
sounds with a sharp change b/w the categories
Voice onset time (VOT) = time b/w release of air and the beginning of the vibration
If a chinchilla demonstrates categorical perception of speech sounds we can assume
that it does not have a special place in its brain for perceiving speech
Can conclude that there is smth about the sound itself that causes mammals to hear
the sounds categorically
Result: chinchillas can categorically perceive
To demonstrate categorical perception, you need both identification task &
discrimination task (are the 2 sounds presented same or diff?)
True categorical perception = listener must not be able to tell diff b/w stimuli in the
same category but should be perfect at discriminating b/w stimuli that cross the
category boundary
selection In situations that are realistic, ppl actually reason significantly better than they do
when the materials are abstract
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